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© 2016 Patrick Blessinger and TJ Bliss. Copyright of each chapter is maintained by the author/s.

The text of this book is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (CC BY 4.0). This license allows you to share, copy, distribute and transmit the text; to adapt it and to make commercial use of it providing that attribution is made to the authors (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work).

Attribution should include the following information:

Patrick Blessinger and TJ Bliss, Open Education: International Perspectives in Higher Education. Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers, 2016.

In order to access detailed and updated information on the license, please visit

Further details about CC BY licenses are available at

All external links were active on 2/12/2016 unless otherwise stated and have been archived via the Internet Archive Wayback Machine at

Updated digital material and resources associated with this volume are available at

Every effort has been made to identify and contact copyright holders and any omission or error will be corrected if notification is made to the publisher.

The Hewlett Foundation ( has generously contributed towards the publication of this volume.

ISBN Paperback: 978-1-78374-278-3

ISBN Hardback: 978-1-78374-279-0

ISBN Digital (PDF): 978-1-78374-280-6

ISBN Digital ebook (epub): 978-1-78374-281-3

ISBN Digital ebook (mobi): 978-1-78374-282-0

DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0103

Cover image: Oditel, Uganda (2011). Photo by Brian Wolfe, CC BY-NC-SA,

All paper used by Open Book Publishers is SFI (Sustainable Forestry Initiative), and PEFC (Programme for the endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes) Certified.

Printed in the United Kingdom, United States and Australia by Lightning Source for Open Book Publishers (Cambridge, UK).