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Archival material

British Library

Catholic News 1889 Microform. MFM.M30054 [1889]

Cross Fleury’s Journal P.P.6080.ka

Empire Journal PP.6080.K

The Journalist and Newspaper Proprietor LOU.LON 247

Newspaper Press Directory (Mitchell) P.P.2495.gab

The London, Provincial and Colonial Press News NEWS11930 NPL 

Preston Evening News NEWS16131 NPL 

The Printers’ Register LOU.LON 5

Cumbria Archive and Local Studies Centre, Barrow

Barrow Working Men’s Club Reading Committee minute book 1881–91, BDSO 85

Barrow Library annual reports BA/L

Harris Library, Community History Library, Preston

Preston Evening Express, Local LA11


Preston Magazine & Christian Miscellany LJ2 PRESTON/PRE

The Wasp LA12/WAS

Annual report of the committee of the free public library and museum of the borough of Preston, LT T251 PRE

Anthony Hewitson, miscellaneous items Local LG3 HEWITSON, Anthony/ANT

Lancashire Archives

Anon, The Lancaster Guardian. History of the Paper, And Reminiscences by Old Hands”, Published in Connection with Its Diamond Jubilee (Lancaster: E & J Milner, 1897), Local LA11 LANCASTER GUARDIAN

Diaries of Anthony Hewitson DP512

Longworth’s Preston Advertiser LA12/LON

Lonsdale Magazine, 1820, LA12/NOR

Minutes of Preston Exchange & News Room committee, CBP 53/4

Oakey’s Commercial and Trade Directory of Preston (Preston: Henry Oakey, 1853)

Winckley Club minute book, DDX 1895/1

Lancashire Post, Preston

Lancashire Evening Post/Daily Post multiple editions, microfilm

Lancaster University Library

‘Social and family life in Preston, 1890–1940’, transcripts of recorded interviews, Elizabeth Roberts archive, Special Collections 8MW (R)

Liverpool Archives

George Melly Collection, 920 MEL 13

Northern Photographic Exhibition, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool 1907, programme 708.6 PHO (print), (online)

University of Manchester Library

Manchester Guardian Archives

Talbot Library, Liverpool Hope University

Lancashire Catholic


The National Archives

Poor Law Commission, Correspondence between William Golden Lumley and Charles Mott, MH 12/6040-43

University of Central Lancashire, special collections

Marian Roberts Collection

Illustrated London News

Institution for the Diffusion of Knowledge, annual reports, Livesey Collection

Databases and websites

Web addresses are only given if individual subscriptions are available; others are available only through institutions such as universities or research libraries.

19th Century British Library Newspapers (includes Preston Chronicle)

British Newspaper Archive, (includes Preston Herald)

British Periodicals (ProQuest)

Dickens Journals Online,

Dictionary of Nineteenth Century Journalism, online edition, C19: The Nineteenth Century Index (ProQuest)

The Economist Historical Archive 1843–2013

Historic Hansard,

Parliamentary Papers 1800–2000 (ProQuest)

Fourth annual report of the registrar-general, 1840–41 [year ending June 30, 1841] (1842)

Twenty-third annual report of the registrar-general, 1860 (1862)

1872 [C.667] Registrar General of Births, Deaths and Marriages in England Thirty-third Annual Report (Summary of Marriages, Births and Deaths registered, 1861–70)

1882 [C.3208] Registrar General of Births, Deaths and Marriages in England Forty-third Annual Report

1854–55 (83) Return of Number of Stamps issued at One Penny to Newspapers in United Kingdom, 1854 [House of Commons Parliamentary Papers Online].

Census reports:

1851 (1852–53) C.1691 (parts 1 & 2)

1861 (1863) C.3221

1871 (1873) C.872

1881 (1883) C.3722

1891 (1893–94) C.7058

1901 (1904) Cd. 2174

1851 (558) XVII. 1House of Commons, ‘Report from the Select Committee on Newspaper Stamps; Together with the Proceedings of the Committee, Minutes of Evidence, Appendix, and Index’

1887 (C. 5158), Royal Commission Appointed to Inquire into the Working of the Elementary Education Acts in England and Wales, Third Report, Evidence

Reading Experience Database

Times Historical Archive

Waterloo Directory of English Newspapers and Periodicals, 1800–1900 (North Waterloo Academic Press)

Print and individual online sources

A Conservative Journalist, ‘The Establishment of Newspapers’, National Review, 5 (1885), 818–28.

Abram, William Alexander, Blackburn Characters of a Past Generation (Blackburn: Toulmin, 1894).

Adams, William Edwin, Memoirs of a Social Atom (London: Hutchinson, 1903),

Aldridge, Meryl, Understanding the Local Media (Maidenhead: Open University Press, 2007).

Ali, Christopher, Media Localism: The Policies of Place (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2017),

Allan, Stuart, ‘News and the Public Sphere: Towards a History of Objectivity and Impartiality’, in A Journalism Reader, ed. by Michael Bromley and Tom O’Malley (London: Routledge, 1997), pp. 296–329.

Allen, Joan, and Owen R. Ashton, Papers for the People: A Study of the Chartist Press (London: Merlin Press, 2005).

Allen, Joan, ‘Diamond, Charles’, in Dictionary of Nineteenth Century Journalism, ed. by Laurel Brake and Marysa Demoor, C19: The Nineteenth Century Index, online (ProQuest).

Altholz, Josef L., The Religious Press in Britain, 1760–1900 (London: Greenwood, 1989).

Altick, Richard, The English Common Reader: A Social History of the Mass Reading Public, 1800–1900 (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1963).

Anderson, Benedict, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (London: Verso, 2006).

Andrew, Alison, ‘The Working Class and Education in Preston 1830–1870: A Study of Social Relations’ (unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Leicester, 1987).

Andrews, Alexander, The History of British Journalism: From the Foundation of the Newspaper Press in England to the Repeal of the Stamp Act in 1855, with Sketches of Press Celebrities (London: Richard Bentley, 1859),

Appadurai, Arjun, Modernity At Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1996).

Arnold, N., ‘The Press in Social Context: A Study of York and Hull, 1815–1855’ (unpublished MPhil dissertation, University of York, 1987).

Ashton, Owen R., W. E. Adams: Chartist, Radical and Journalist (1832–1906) : ‘An Honour to the Fourth Estate’ (Whitley Bay: Bewick Press, 1991).

Aspden, Hartley, Fifty Years a Journalist. Reflections and Recollections of an Old Clitheronian (Clitheroe: Advertiser & Times, 1930).

Aspinall, Arthur, ‘The Circulation of Newspapers in the Early Nineteenth Century’, The Review of English Studies, 22 (1946), 29–43.

Aspinall, Arthur, Politics and the Press, c.1780–1850 (Brighton: Harvester Press, 1973).

Asquith, Ivon, ‘The Structure, Ownership and Control of the Press, 1780–1855’, in Newspaper History from the Seventeenth Century to the Present Day, ed. by David George Boyce, James Curran, and Pauline Wingate (London: Constable, 1978), pp. 98–116.

Atteridge, A. Hilliard, ‘Catholic Periodical Literature’, Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 11 (New York: Robert Appleton, 1911),

Ayerst, David, Guardian: Biography of a Newspaper (London: Collins, 1971).

[Bagehot, Walter], ‘The Position of the Metropolitan Press’, The Economist, 14 May 1870, pp. 595–96.

Baggs, Christopher M., ‘The Libraries of the Co-Operative Movement: A Forgotten Episode’, Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 23 (1991), 87–96.

Bagley, John J., Lancashire Diarists: Three Centuries of Lancashire Lives (London: Phillimore, 1975).

Bainbridge, T. H., ‘Barrow in Furness: A Population Study’, Economic Geography, 15 (1939), 379–83.

Baines, Edward, jnr, The Life of Edward Baines, Late M. P. for the Borough of Leeds, by His Son (Leeds: Reid Newsome, 1851).

Baines, Edward, Extension of the Franchise: Speech of Edward Baines on Moving the Second Reading of the Borough Franchise Bill, in the House of Commons, on the 11th May, 1864 (London, 1864),

Bale, John, ‘The Place of “Place” in Cultural Studies of Sports’, Progress in Human Geography, 12 (1988), 507–24.

Barbary, V. C., ‘Reinterpreting “Factory Politics” in Bury, Lancashire, 1868–1880’, Historical Journal, 51 (2008), 115–44,

Barker, Hannah, ‘England, 1760–1815’, in Press, Politics and the Public Sphere in Europe and North America, 1760–1820, ed. by Hannah Barker and Simon Burrows (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), pp. 93–112,

Barry, J, ‘The Press and the Politics of Culture in Bristol 1660–1775’, in Culture, Politics, and Society in Britain, 1660–1800, ed. by Jeremy Black and Jeremy Gregory (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1991), pp. 49–81.

Barthel, Michael, Jesse Holcomb, Jessica Mahone, and Amy Mitchell, ‘Civic Engagement Strongly Tied to Local News Habits’, Pew Research Center’s Journalism Project, 2016,

Barton, David, ‘Exploring the Historical Basis of Contemporary Literacy’, The Quarterly Newsletter of the Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition, 10 (1988), 70–76.

Barton, David, and Mary Hamilton, Local Literacies: Reading and Writing in One Community (London: Routledge, 1998).

Barton, Roger Neil, ‘New Media: The Birth of Telegraphic News in Britain 1847–1868’, Media History, 16 (2010), 379–406,

Basu, Jitendra Nath, Romance of Indian Journalism (Calcutta: Calcutta University, 1979).

Bates, Denise, Historical Research Using British Newspapers (Barnsley: Pen & Sword, 2016).

Bauman, Zygmunt, Liquid Modernity (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2000).

Bayard, Pierre, How to Talk About Books You Haven’t Read (Granta Books, 2008).

‘BBC — Public Purposes: Citizenship and Civil Society— Inside the BBC’,

Beaven, Brad, ‘The Provincial Press, Civic Ceremony and the Citizen-Soldier During the Boer War, 1899–1902: A Study of Local Patriotism’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 37 (2009), 207–28,

Beetham, Margaret, ‘Ben Brierley’s Journal’, Manchester Region History Review, 17 (2006), 73–83.

—, ‘Healthy Reading’, in City, Class and Culture: Studies of Social Policy and Cultural Production in Victorian Manchester, ed. by Alan J. Kidd and Kenneth W. Roberts (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1985).

—, ‘“Oh! I Do like to Be beside the Seaside!”: Lancashire Seaside Publications’, Victorian Periodicals Review, 42 (2009), 24–36,

—, ‘Open and Closed: The Periodical as a Publishing Genre’, Victorian Periodicals Review, 22 (1989), 96–100.

—, ‘Time: Periodicals and the Time of the Now’, Victorian Periodicals Review, 48 (2015), 323–42,

Bell, Allan, ‘Language Style as Audience Design’, Language in Society, 13 (1984), 145–204,

Bell, Bill, ‘Bound for Australia: Shipboard Reading in the Nineteenth Century’, in Journeys through the Market: Travel, Travellers, and the Book Trade, ed. by Robin Myers and Michael Harris (Folkestone: Oak Knoll Press, 1999), pp. 119–40.

Bell, Florence Eveleen Eleanore Olliffe, At the Works: A Study of a Manufacturing Town (Middlesbrough: University of Teesside, 1907/1997).

Berridge, Virginia, ‘Popular Sunday Newspapers and Mid-Victorian Society’, in Newspaper History from the Seventeenth Century to the Present Day, ed. by David George Boyce, James Curran, and Pauline Wingate (London: Constable, 1978), pp. 247–64.

Berry, David, ‘The South Wales Argus and Cultural Representations of Gwent’, Journalism Studies, 9 (2008), 105–16,

Birrell, Augustine, ‘Sir Robert Peel’, in The Collected Essays & Addresses of the Rt. Hon. Augustine Birrell, 1880–1920 (London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1922), pp. 326–48,

Blair, Kirstie, ‘Advertising Poetry, the Working-Class Poet and the Victorian Newspaper Press’, Journal of Victorian Culture, 23 (2018), 103–18,

—, ‘The Newspaper Press and the Victorian Working Class Poet’, in A History of British Working Class Literature, ed. by John Goodridge and Bridget Keegan (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017), pp. 264–80,

Bourdieu, Pierre, On Television and Journalism (London: Pluto Press, 1998).

Bourne, H. R. Fox, English Newspapers: Chapters in the History of Journalism, Vol. II (London: Routledge/Thoemmes Press, 1887),

Bradford, Anne R., Drawn by Friendship: The Art and Wit of the Revd. John Thomas Wilson (New Barnet: Anne R. Bradford, 1997).

Brake, Laurel, ‘The Longevity of “Ephemera”’, Media History, 18 (2012), 7–20,

—, ‘Magazine Day’, in Dictionary of Nineteenth-Century Journalism in Great Britain and Ireland, ed. by Laurel Brake and Marysa Demoor (Ghent; London: Academia Press; British Library, 2009).

—, ‘Markets, Genres, Iterations’, in Routledge Handbook to Nineteenth-Century British Periodicals and Newspapers, ed. by Andrew King, Alexis Easley, and John Morton (Abingdon: Routledge, 2016), pp. 237–48.

—, ‘Nineteenth-Century Newspaper Press Directories: The National Gallery of the British Press’, Victorian Periodicals Review, 48 (2016), 569–90,

—, ‘The Old Journalism and the New: Forms of Cultural Production in London in the 1880s’, in Papers for the Millions: The New Journalism in Britain, 1850s to 1914, ed. by Joel H. Wiener (London: Greenwood, 1988).

—, ‘“The Trepidation of the Spheres”: The Serial and the Book in the 19th Century’, in Serials and Their Readers, 1620–1914, ed. by Robin Myers and Michael Harris (Winchester: Oak Knoll Press, 1993).

—, ‘Writing, Cultural Production, and the Periodical Press in the Nineteenth Century’, in Writing and Victorianism, ed. by J.B. Bullen (London: Longman, 1997), pp. 54–72.

Brake, Laurel, and Marysa Demoor, eds., Dictionary of Nineteenth Century Journalism, C19: The Nineteenth Century Index, Online edition (ProQuest).

Brake, Laurel, and Mark W. Turner, ‘Rebranding the News of the World: 1856–90’, in The News of the World and the British Press, 1843–2011, ed. by Laurel Brake, Chandrika Kaul, and Mark W. Turner (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015), pp. 27–42,

Bramwell, William, Reminiscences of a Public Librarian, a Retrospective View (Preston: Ambler, 1916).

Brett, Peter, ‘Early Nineteenth-Century Reform Newspapers in the Provinces: The Newcastle Chronicle and Bristol Mercury’, in Studies in Newspaper and Periodical History: 1995 Annual, ed. by Tom O’Malley and Michael Harris (London: Greenwood, 1997), pp. 49–67,

‘The British Newspaper: The Penny Theory and Its Solution’, Dublin University Magazine, 61 (1863), 359–76,;view=1up;seq=361

Bromley, Michael, and Nick Hayes, ‘Campaigner, Watchdog or Municipal Lackey? Reflections on the Inter-War Provincial Press, Local Identity and Civic Welfarism’, Media History, 8 (2002), 197–212,

Brooks, Joseph Barlow, Lancashire Bred: An Autobiography (Oxford: Church Army Press, 1951).

Brown, James Duff, and W. C. Berwick Sayers, Manual of Library Economy, 3rd edn (Grafton & Co., 1920),

Brown, Lucy, Victorian News and Newspapers (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985).

Buckley, Colin, ‘The Search for “a Really Smart Sheet”: The Conservative Evening Newspaper Project in Edwardian Manchester’, Manchester Region History Review, 1 (1987), 21–28,

Burns, Arthur, The Diocesan Revival in the Church of England, c. 1800–1870 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999).

Burt, Arnold G., ‘Newsroom Arrangement’, Library World, 1902, 256–64.

Bussey, Harry Findlater, Sixty Years of Journalism: Anecdotes and Reminiscences (Bristol: J. W. Arrowsmith, 1906).

Carey, James, Communication as Culture: Essays on Media and Society (London: Routledge, 1989),

—, ‘A Cultural Approach to Communication’, in Communication as Culture: Essays on Media and Society (London: Routledge, 1989), pp. 13–36.

Carrington, Frederic, ‘Country Newspapers and Their Editors’, New Monthly Magazine, 105: 418 (1855), 142–52,;view=1up;seq=152

Catton, J. A. H., The Rise of the Leaguers: A History of the Clubs Comprising the First Division of the Football League: Reprinted from the Sporting Chronicle (Manchester: Sporting Chronicle, 1897).

Caunce, Stephen, ‘British, English or What? A Northern English Perspective on Britishness as a New Millennium Starts’, Unpublished Conference Paper Delivered at “Relocating Britain” Conference, University of Central Lancashire, 2000.

—, ‘Complexity, Community Structure and Competitive Advantage within the Yorkshire Woollen Industry, c. 1700–1850’, Business History, 39 (1997), 26–43,

—, ‘Market Reports’, in Dictionary of Nineteenth Century Journalism, ed. by Laurel Brake and Marysa Demoor, C19: The Nineteenth Century Index, Online Edition (London: ProQuest).

—, ‘Northern English Industrial Towns: Rivals or Partners?’, Urban History, 30 (2003), 338–58,

—, Oral History and the Local Historian (London: Longman, 1994).

Cavallo, Guglielmo, and Roger Chartier, ‘Introduction’, in A History of Reading in the West, ed. by Guglielmo Cavallo and Roger Chartier (Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1999), pp. 1–36.

Census of Great Britain, 1851: Religious Worship in England and Wales Abridged from the Official Report (London: Routledge, 1854),

A Century of Progress 1844–1944, Southport Visiter (Southport: Southport Visiter, 1944).

Certeau, Michel de, The Practice of Everyday Life (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1988).

‘A Chapter On Provincial Journalism’, Tait’s Edinburgh Magazine, July 1850, 424–27,

Chalaby, Jean, The Invention of Journalism (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1998).

Clark, Peter, ‘Introduction’, in The Transformation of English Provincial Towns, 1600–1800, ed. by Peter Clark (London: Hutchinson, 1984), pp. 13–61.

Clarke, Bob, From Grub Street to Fleet Street: An Illustrated History of the English Newspaper to 1899 (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004).

Clarke, Tony, Pilgrims of the Press: A History of Eastern Counties Newspapers Group 1850–2000 (Norwich: Eastern Counties Newspapers, 2000).

Clay, Walter Lowe, The Prison Chaplain: A Memoir of the Rev. John Clay, B. D., with Selections from His Reports and Correspondence, and a Sketch of Prison Discipline in England (Cambridge: Macmillan, 1861).

Colclough, Stephen, Consuming Texts: Readers and Reading Communities, 1695–1870 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007),

—, ‘“A Larger Outlay than Any Return”: The Library of W. H. Smith & Son, 1860–1873’, Publishing History, 54 (2003), 67–93.

—, ‘Procuring Books and Consuming Texts: The Reading Experience of a Sheffield Apprentice, 1798’, Book History, 3 (2000), 21–44,

Colley, Linda, Britons: Forging the Nation, 1707–1837 (New Haven, CT: Yale Nota Bene, 2005).

Collins, Mortimer, ‘Country Newspapers’, Temple Bar, 10 (December 1863), pp. 128–41,;view=1up;seq=132

[Collins, Wilkie], ‘The Unknown Public’, Household Words, 18 (1858), 217–22,

Connelly, Ross, ‘“Letters from Readers” a More Appropriate Heading’, Grassroots Editor, 47 (2006), 14,

Convey, John, The Harris Free Public Library and Museum, Preston 1893–1993 (Preston: Lancashire County Books, 1993).

‘Country Books of the Quarter’, Countryman, April 1928, p. 90.

‘Country News’, Household Words, 2 July 1853, pp. 426–30,

Coupland, Nikolas, Dialect in Use: Sociolinguistic Variation in Cardiff English (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1988).

Cox, Howard, and Simon Mowatt, Revolutions from Grub Street: A History of Magazine Publishing in Britain (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014).

Crang, Mike, Cultural Geography (London: Routledge, 2004), 

Credland, William Robert, The Manchester Public Free Libraries; a History and Description, and Guide to Their Contents and Use (Manchester: Public Free Libraries Committee, 1899),

Cresswell, Tim, Place: An Introduction, 2nd edition (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014).

Crisell, Andrew, and Guy Starkey, ‘News on Local Radio’, in Local Journalism and Local Media: Making the Local News, ed. by Bob Franklin (London: Routledge, 2006), pp. 16–26, 

Cross, Gary, A Quest for Time: The Reduction of Work in Britain and France, 1840–1940 (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1992).

Curran, James, ‘The Press as an Agency of Social Control’, in Newspaper History from the Seventeenth Century to the Present Day, ed. by David George Boyce, James Curran, and Pauline Wingate (London: Constable, 1978), pp. 51–75.

—, ‘The Industrialization of the Press’, in Power without Responsibility: The Press and Broadcasting in Britain, ed. by James Curran and Jean Seaton (London: Routledge, 1991), pp. 32–48.

—, ‘Media and the Making of British Society, c.1700–2000’, Media History, 8 (2002), 135–54,

Darnton, Robert, ‘First Steps Towards a History of Reading’, in The Kiss of Lamourette: Reflections in Cultural History, ed. by Robert Darnton (London: Faber & Faber, 1990), pp. 154–87.

Dawson, John, Practical Journalism, How to Enter Thereon and Succeed. A Manual for Beginners and Amateurs (London: Upton Gill, 1885).

‘A Day at the London Free Libraries’, All the Year Round, 7 (1892), 305–9.

De Cillia, Rudolf, Martin Reisigl, and Ruth Wodak, ‘The Discursive Construction of National Identities’, Discourse and Society, 10 (1999), 149–74, 

Delafield, Catherine, Serialization and the Novel in Mid-Victorian Magazines (Routledge, 2016),

Denvir, John, The Life Story of an Old Rebel (Shannon: Irish University Press, 1972).

[Dicey, Edward], ‘Provincial Journalism’, Saint Pauls Magazine 3 (December 1868), 61–73,;view=1up;seq=73

Dickens, Charles, Our Mutual Friend (London: Chapman and Hall, 1865).

—, Hard Times, ed. by Fred Kaplan (Norton, 2016).

Digby, Ronald Y., J. C. Goddard, and Alice Miller, An Accrington Miscellany. Prose and Verse by Local Writers (Burnley: Lancashire County Council Library, Museum and Arts Committee, 1988).

Disraeli, Benjamin, Benjamin Disraeli Letters 1848–51, ed. by J. B. Conacher and M. G. Wiebe (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1982), V,

Dixon, Diana, ‘New Town, New Newspapers: The Development of the Newspaper Press in Nineteenth-Century Middlesbrough’, in The Moving Market: Continuity and Change in the Book Trade, ed. by Peter C. G. Isaac and Barrie McKay (New Castle, DE: Oak Knoll Press, 2001), pp. 107–16.

—, ‘Navigating the Maze: Sources for Press Historians’, Media History, 9 (2003), 79–90, 

Donaldson, William, Popular Literature in Victorian Scotland: Language, Fiction, and the Press (Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 1986).

Dooley, Brendan Maurice, ‘Introduction’, in The Politics of Information in Early Modern Europe, ed. by Brendan Maurice Dooley and Sabrina A. Baron (London: Routledge, 2011), pp. 1–16,

Douglas, Susan J., ‘Does Textual Analysis Tell Us Anything about Past Audiences?’, in Explorations in Communication and History, ed. by Barbie Zelizer (London: Routledge, 2008), pp. 66–76,

Duffy, Patrick, The Skilled Compositor, 1850–1914: An Aristocrat Among Working Men (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000).

Dutton, H. I., and John Edward King, ’Ten per Cent and No Surrender’ : The Preston Strike, 1853–1854 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981).

Eastwood, David, Government and Community in the English Provinces, 1700–1870 (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1997).

Easley, Alexis, Andrew King, and John Morton, eds., Researching the Nineteenth-Century Periodical Press: Case Studies (London: Routledge, 2017),

Eliot, Simon, Some Patterns and Trends in British Publishing, 1800–1919 (London: Bibliographical Society, 1994).

Eliot, T. S., ‘American Literature and the American Language’, in To Criticize the Critic and Other Writings (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1965), pp. 43–60.

Ellegard, Alvar, ‘The Readership of the Periodical Press in Mid-Victorian Britain II. Directory’, Victorian Periodicals Newsletter, 13 (1971), 3–22.

Ellegard, Henrik Alvar, ‘The Readership of the Periodical Press in Mid-Victorian Britain’, Göteborgs Universitets Arsskrift, 63 (1957).

Elliott, Robert, ‘On Working Men’s Reading Rooms, as Established since 1848 at Carlisle’, Transactions of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science, 1861, 676–79,

Engel, Matthew, ‘Local Papers: An Obituary’, British Journalism Review, 20 (2009), 55–58, 

Entman, Robert M., ‘Framing: Toward Clarification of a Fractured Paradigm’, Journal of Communication, 43 (1993), 51–58,

Erickson, Lee, ‘The Market’, in A Companion to Victorian Poetry, ed. by Richard Cronin, Alison Chapman, and Antony H. Harrison (Malden, MA.: Blackwell, 2002), pp. 345–60,

—, The Economy of Literary Form: English Literature and the Industrialization of Publishing, 1800–1850 (London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996).

Esbester, Mike, ‘Nineteenth-Century Timetables and the History of Reading’, Book History, 12 (2009), 156–85,

Evans, Neil, ‘Regional Dynamics: North Wales, 1750–1914’, in Issues of Regional Identity: In Honour of John Marshall, ed. by Edward Royle (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1998), pp. 201–25.

Ferdinand, C. Y., Benjamin Collins and the Provincial Newspaper Trade in the Eighteenth Century (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997).

Finn, Mike, ‘The Realities of War’, History Today, 52 (2002), 26–31.

Fish, Stanley Eugene, ‘Interpreting the Variorum’, Critical Inquiry, 2 (1976), 465–85,

Fowler, Alan, Lancashire Cotton Operatives and Work, 1900–1950: A Social History of Lancashire Cotton Operatives in the Twentieth Century (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003).

Fowler, Bridget, ‘Collective Memory and Forgetting: Components for a Study of Obituaries’, Theory, Culture & Society, 22 (2005), 53–72, 

Fraser, Derek, ‘The Press in Leicester c. 1790–1850’, Transactions of the Leicestershire Archaeological and Historical Society, 42 (1967), 53–75

—, ‘The Editor as Activist: Editors and Urban Politics in Early Victorian England’, in Innovators and Preachers: The Role of the Editor in Victorian England, ed. by Joel H. Wiener (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1985), pp. 121–42.

Fraser, Nancy, ‘Rethinking the Public Sphere: A Contribution to the Critique of Actually Existing Democracy’, in Habermas and the Public Sphere, ed. by Craig J. Calhoun (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997), pp. 109–42,

Fritzsche, Peter, Reading Berlin 1900 (London: Harvard University Press, 1996).

Fyfe, Paul, By Accident or Design: Writing the Victorian Metropolis (Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2015), 

Gardiner, F. K., ‘Provincial Morning Newspapers’, in The Kemsley Manual of Journalism (London: Cassell, 1952), pp. 204–08.

Gardner, FitzRoy, ‘The Tory Press and the Tory Party, I. —a Complaint’, National Review, 21 (1893), pp. 357–74.

Gardner, Victoria E. M., ‘The Communications Broker and the Public Sphere: John Ware and the Cumberland Pacquet’, Cultural and Social History, 10 (2013), 533–57,

—, The Business of News in England, 1760–1820 (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2016),

Garrett, Brian, ‘Personal Identity’, in Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Taylor & Francis),

Garvey, Ellen Gruber, Writing with Scissors: American Scrapbooks from the Civil War to the Harlem Renaissance (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), 

Gaskell, William, Two Lectures on the Lancashire Dialect (London, 1854).

Geertz, Clifford, Available Light: Anthropological Reflections on Philosophical Topics (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000), 

‘Gentlemen of the Press. IV. The Reporter’, St. James’s Magazine, February 1882, 173–79.

George, Lisa M., and Joel Waldfogel, ‘The New York Times and the Market for Local Newspapers’, American Economic Review, 96 (2006), 435–47,

‘Getting Through the Morning Newspaper’, The Journalist and Newspaper Proprietor, 20 October 1900, p. 329.

Gilbert, David, ‘Community and Municipalism: Collective Identity in Late-Victorian and Edwardian Mining Towns’, Journal of Historical Geography, 17 (1991), 257–70, 

Gilbert, Pamela K., Mapping the Victorian Social Body (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2004).

Gillow, Joseph, and Anthony Hewitson, eds., The Tyldesley Diary: Personal Records of Thomas Tyldesley (Grandson of Sir Thomas Tyldesley, the Royalist) during the Years 1712-13-14 (Preston: A. Hewitson, 1873),

Goffman, Erving, Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1974).

Goldgel-Carballo, Víctor, ‘“High-Speed Enlightenment”’, Media History, 18 (2012), 129–41,

Goldstein, Jeffrey, ‘Emergence as a Construct: History and Issues’, Emergence: Complexity and Organization, 1 (1999),

Goldsworthy, Simon, ‘English Nonconconformity and the Pioneering of the Modern Newspaper Campaign’, Journalism Studies, 7 (2006), 387–402,

[Goodair, John] ‘A Preston Manufacturer’, Strikes Prevented (Manchester: Whittaker, 1854),

Goodwyn, Helena, ‘A “New” Journalist: The Americanization of W. T. Stead’, Journal of Victorian Culture, 23 (2018), 405–20,

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Grant, James, The Newspaper Press: Its Origin, Progress and Present Position, Vol.3. The Metropolitan Weekly and Provincial Press (London: Routledge, 1872),

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