List of Illustrations

Fig. 1.1

Group songs in various interactional contexts. Figure created by author (2021).


Fig. 1.2

Some carriers of song and scenarios of transmission. Figure created by author (2021).


Fig. 1.3

The opening of the nursery rhymes Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star and Baa Baa Black Sheep (and Ah! Vous-dirai je maman). Set by author using MuseScore (2021).


Fig. 1.4

Tune M1, based here on the version printed in vol. V of the Scots Musical Museum transposed from D to C and with minor changes to the rhythm. Set by author using MuseScore (2021).


Fig. 1.5

Tune M2, basic tune from author’s oral memory. Set by author using MuseScore (2021).


Fig. 1.6

Tune M3, based on the Tannahill Weaver’s recording. Set by author using MuseScore (2021).


Fig. 2.1

Old Long Syne, facsimile of broadside published ca. 1701 and held in the National Library of Scotland, shelfmark Ry.III.a.10(070), CC BY 4.0.


Fig. 2.2

Old-Long-Syne from James Watson (ed.), A Choice Collection of Comic and Serious Scots Poems, III (Edinburgh: James Watson, 1711), 71–74.


Fig. 2.3

Allan Ramsay’s Auld Lang Syne, as printed in The Tea-Table Miscellany (Edinburgh: Thomas Ruddiman, 1724), 97–99.


Fig. 2.4

M-1 as it appears in the Sinkler Manuscript, early eighteenth century. Set by author using MuseScore (2021).


Fig. 2.5

“For old long Gine my Joe” (M-1), in Henry Playford’s A Collection of Scotch Tunes (London: Henry Playford, 1700), 11,, CC BY 4.0.


Fig. 3.1

The tunes published with (a) Ramsay’s and (b) Burns’s texts in vols I and V respectively of Johnson’s Scots Musical Museum. Reproduced here from the National Library of Scotland’s digitization of the 1787 and 1839 editions: Glen Collection of Printed Music. Shelfmarks Glen.201 and Glen.201d,, CC BY 4.0.


Fig. 3.2

Comparison of M-1 and M1. Set by author using MuseScore (2021).


Fig. 3.3

Burns’s Now Spring Has Clad Her Groves in Green, set to M1 by Koželuch as Thomson’s song No. 91; first published 1799, taken here from the edition published as Fifty Scottish Songs, vol. II (Edinburgh: Printed for G. Thomson by J. Moir, 1801). Digitized by Western University, Ontario — University of Toronto Libraries. CC BY-SA 4.0.


Fig. 3.4

M2 as given by William Shield in the overture to Rosina, from an edition for keyboard instrument published by J. Dale, ca. 1786–1791; EUL Special Collections, shelfmark Mus.s.624/3. Image by author (2021), with permission from Edinburgh University Library.


Fig. 3.5

Comparison of possible sources for M2 according to Glen’s Early Scottish Melodies (Edinburgh: J. & R. Glen, 1900),, CC BY 4.0.


Fig. 3.6

M1 and M2, combined, with the rhythm synchronized, and harmonized. Set by author using MuseScore (2021).


Fig. 3.7

The tunes of (a) “Aul’ Langsyne”, collected from Robert Alexander, and (b) “Langsyne”, collected from John Johnstone, as published in The Greig-Duncan Folk Song Collection, VI (Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 1981ff.), 184–185. © University of Aberdeen; reproduced by permission. All rights reserved.


Fig. 3.8

The text of the “Aberdeenshire” version, quoted here from Anon., 1921, “‘Auld Lang Syne’: The Authorship of the Old Aberdeenshire Version’”, Aberdeen Daily Journal, 16 July, 3–7.


Fig. 4.1

A snuff-box presented to King George IV on his trip to Scotland in 1822, engraved with the first verse and music of Burns’s Auld Lang Syne. Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2021.


Fig. 5.1

Käthe Kollwitz, Solidarität / Wir schützen die Sowjetunion (Propellerlied), 1931–1932; lithographic crayon, NT 1229, Cologne Kollwitz Collection © Käthe Kollwitz Museum Köln.


Fig. 7.1

(a) and (b) Some typical alterations to the opening of M2 in nineteenth-century instrumental variations. Figures created by author (2021).


Fig. 7.2

(a) Frontispiece and (b) final verse images from a book edition of Auld Lang Syne published in 1905 (NLS shelf mark T.8.g); artist not credited; and (c) an alternative frontispiece image, by Gordon Browne, from an edition published in 1908 as Auld Lang Syne and Other Poems (London: Ernest Nister; New York: E. P. Dutton & Co.). Image for (c) from a copy in the author’s possession; also held in the British Library, UIN BLL01000543385.


Fig. 8.1

Text of Peter Livingston’s A Guid New Year, taken here from Livingston 1873 [1846], 126–127; textual similarities to Burns’s Auld Lang Syne in bold.


Fig. 8.2

Church bell programmes from New York, New Year 1898–1899. New York Times, 1 January 1899. Public domain.


Fig. 9.1

Comparison of Beethoven’s setting as published in the Gesamtausgabe in 1862 with the version published by Thomson in 1841. Main differences are highlighted with boxes; arrows point to melodic/harmonic differences specifically. Figure created by author (2021).


Fig. 9.2

Scouts from several nations join hands to sing Auld Lang Syne at the first World Jamboree, 1920. Image: The Scouts (UK) Heritage Service, CC BY 4.0.


Fig. 9.3

Sevin’s French version (quoted here from Jeunesse qui chant, 1946); variants of the third and fourth verses (quoted from Passant en Paris, 1948), are given in brackets; for comparison, the version by Jerzy Litwiniuk sung by Polish scouts.  


Fig. 9.4

The three most common post-war German versions of Auld Lang Syne.


Fig. 10.1

Text of Jesu Nkosi Yokuthula by Princess Constance Magogo, from a recording made in 1976; transcribed and translated into English for this book by Mmangaliso Nzuza with assistance from Magogo’s granddaughter.


Fig. 10.2

Aakjær’s translation of Auld Lang Syne, attributed to Burns, as published in Syng: Gesangbog for Danmark, ca. 1943, 52.


Fig. 10.3

Hotaru no hikari (Fireflies); translated by Mark Jewel. Copyright (c) 2018 by The Liberal Arts Research Center, School of Political Science and Economics, Waseda University. Reproduced by permission of the translator.


Fig. 10.4

The text, and the verse music and start of the chorus, of Paul Pelham and J. P. Lang’s You Used To Be A Friend to Me (For the Sake of Auld Lang Syne) (1910).


Fig. 10.5

A song abroad. Relative weighting of lines indicates relative significance/import: stronger lines indicate clear adoption of the tradition/element concerned. Figure created by author (2021).


Fig. 12.1

The thirteen recorded versions of Auld Lang Syne by Scottish musicians discussed in this chapter.


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