Module 13

Third Declension Nouns

© 2021 Philip S. Peek, CC BY 4.0 https://doi.org/10.11647/OBP.0264.14

Nouns

Nouns in Greek are defined just as nouns in English; but the way they create meaning is different. As in English, Greek nouns (ὀνόματα) refer to people, places, things, and ideas. Greek nouns have endings. English nouns can change form when they show possession, as in Jada’s book, where the ’s is added as a suffix and indicates that the book belongs to Jada. English nouns also change form when expressing the plural: two suns, three oxen, four mice. The endings on Greek nouns, as we have seen previously, create the same meanings that English does through form change, word order, and the use of prepositional phrases.

Greek Nouns

In Greek there are three noun declensions: first, second, and third. In this text, the third declension, also called the consonant declension, is taught first because it offers the most complexity. Once you understand the third declension, it is easier for you to learn the remaining two declensions. Learning the third declension first also reinforces why the stem, the base to which endings are attached, is taken from the genitive singular. Also by learning the third declension before the other two, you will be less inclined to match or rhyme noun and adjective endings when you modify a noun with an adjective.

Noun Sets 1–10

Since each Greek noun takes only one set of endings, this text numbers the endings by sets 1–10. The aim in doing so is to make clear the correspondence between one noun to which one set of endings is added. It is also a helpful way to refer to the endings when identifying nouns and discussing things like case and function. The noun sets learned in this module are sets 9 and 10, so numbered to maintain consistency across the traditional order of nouns of the first, second, and third declension.

Noun Gender

Most nouns have only one gender: masculine, feminine, or neuter. Sometimes the noun’s gender matches biological sex: πατήρ father is masculine and μήτηρ mother is feminine. At other times noun gender and biological sex do not match: the noun τὸ παιδίον child is neuter in gender. Occasionally the same noun may have a common gender that depends upon biological sex: θεός god; θεός goddess; παῖς girl; παῖς boy; ἵππός mare; ἵππος stallion. Τhe article, , , τό, indicates the noun’s gender. indicates that the noun is masculine. indicates that the noun is feminine and τό that it is neuter.

Third Declension Nouns

All third declension nouns have a stem that ends in a consonant or an iota ι-, or upsilon υ-. All third declension nouns use the same endings but for some nouns the ending is disguised by ablaut, contraction, or quantitative metathesis. In this module you learn the endings and also how to recognize them when they are disguised. Unlike nouns of the first and second declension, the nominative singular of nouns of the third declension varies. For this reason a blank, ---, is written for the nominative singular of these nouns. The gender of third declension nouns that take set 9 endings is either masculine or feminine. The gender of nouns that take set 10 endings is always neuter. The gender of third declension subtype nouns is indicated within each paradigm.

Identifying Noun Sets

As already noted, the article, roughly equivalent to the English the, tells you the gender of each noun. Most nouns have one gender, though occasionally a noun can have the common gender of either feminine or masculine, i.e. it can be either feminine or masculine. In lexical entries like the ones below, the nominative singular form comes first. The genitive singular comes second and the article third. From these three pieces of information you can identify each noun’s gender and you can identify what set of endings any noun has. Remember that each noun has only one ending set. By the end of Part I of the 21st-Century series you will have learned 10 noun sets found in three noun declensions.

Nominative

Genitive

Article

Gender

Set #

English Equivalent

αἴξ

αἰγός

or

masc. or fem.

9

goat

ἄρχων

ἄρχοντος

masc.

9

ruler

ἐλπίς

ἐλπίδος

fem.

9

hope

σῶμα

σώματος

τό

neut.

10

body

φύλαξ

φύλακος

masc.

9

guard

χάρις

χάριτος

fem.

9

grace

Declining Third Declension Nouns

To decline third declension nouns, first get the stem by removing the genitive singular ending -ος. What remains is the stem, the base of the word the ending is joined to. To the stem add the endings from either Set 9 or Set 10, in accordance with what set the noun belongs to.

M/F

Set 9

S

Pl

N

---

-ες

A

-α or -ν

-ας

G

-ος

-ων

D

-ι

-σι (ν)

V

---

-ες

Neuter

Set 10

S

Pl

N

---

-α

A

---

-α

G

-ος

-ων

D

-ι

-σι (ν)

V

---

-α

M/F

Set 9

S

Pl

N

---

-ες

G

-ος

-ων

D

-ι

-σι (ν)

A

-α or -ν

-ας

V

---

-ες

Neuter

Set 10

S

Pl

N

---

-α

G

-ος

-ων

D

-ι

-σι (ν)

A

---

-α

V

---

-α

  1. For Set 9 the nominative singular varies, hence the blank, ---.
  2. The feminine and masculine accusative plural ending is -ας. Contrast it with the ending -ᾱς of the first declension, which you will learn soon.
  3. In Set 10 the blank, ---, indicates that the singulars of the nominative, accusative, and vocative vary. For all neuter nouns, the singulars of these three cases are identical to one another. The plurals of these three cases are also identical to one another and the ending is an alpha, -α. Use context to determine what case each is in.

Consider the following third declension nouns and note how each declines.

φύλαξ, φύλακος guard

*σῶμα, σώματος τό body

αἴξ, αἰγός or goat

χάρις, χάριτος grace

ἐλπίς, ἐλπίδος hope

For each noun, above the first form is the nominative singular, the second is the genitive singular, and the third is the article.

Singular

N

αἴξ

ἄρχων

ἐλπίς

σῶμα

φύλαξ

χάρις

A

αἶγα

ἄρχοντα

ἐλπίδα

σῶμα

φύλακα

χάριν

G

αἰγός

ἄρχοντος

λπίδος

σώματος

φύλακος

χάριτος

D

αἰγί

ἄρχοντι

ἐλπίδι

σώματι

φύλακι

χάριτι

V

αἴξ

ἄρχον

ἐλπί

σῶμα

φύλαξ

χάρι

Plural

N

αἶγες

ἄρχοντες

ἐλπίδες

σώματα

φύλακες

χάριτες

A

αἶγας

ἄρχοντας

ἐλπίδας

σώματα

φύλακας

χάριτας

G

αἰγῶν

ἀρχόντων

ἐλπίδων

σωμάτων

φυλάκων

χαρίτων

D

αἰξί (ν)

ἄρχουσι (ν)

ἐλπίσι (ν)

σώμασι (ν)

φύλαξι (ν)

χάρισι (ν)

V

αἶγες

ἄρχοντες

ἐλπίδες

σώματα

φύλακες

χάριτες

Singular

N

αἴξ

ἄρχων

ἐλπίς

σῶμα

φύλαξ

χάρις

G

αἰγός

ἄρχοντος

ἐλπίδος

σώματος

φύλακος

χάριτος

D

αἰγί

ἄρχοντι

ἐλπίδι

σώματι

φύλακι

χάριτι

A

αἶγα

ἄρχοντα

ἐλπίδα

σῶμα

φύλακα

χάριν

V

αἴξ

ἄρχον

ἐλπί

σῶμα

φύλαξ

χάρι

Plural

N

αἶγες

ἄρχοντες

ἐλπίδες

σώματα

φύλακες

χάριτες

G

αἰγῶν

ἀρχόντων

ἐλπίδων

σωμάτων

φυλάκων

χαρίτων

D

αἰξί (ν)

ἄρχουσι (ν)

ἐλπίσι (ν)

σώμασι (ν)

φύλαξι (ν)

χάρισι (ν)

A

αἶγας

ἄρχοντας

ἐλπίδας

σώματα

φύλακας

χάριτας

V

αἶγες

ἄρχοντες

ἐλπίδες

σώματα

φύλακες

χάριτες

  1. Accent is persistent except that nouns with monosyllabic stems accent the ultima in the genitive and dative, singular and plural. The genitive plural has a circumflex, such as αἰγῶν. The others have an acute.
  2. All 3rd declension nouns end in alpha in the accusative singular unless their stem ends in -ιτ, -ιδ, or, -ιθ and the iota is not accented. In this case the final consonant is dropped and the ending, -ν, is added. Contrast ἐλπίς, ἐλπίδα with χάρις, χάριν.
  3. The vocative singular is the same as the nominative singular if the nominative singular ends in -ξ or -ψ or if it ends in -ν or -ρ and accents the ultima. Otherwise the vocative singular consists of the stem minus the final tau, delta, or theta (τ, δ, θ), called dentals because the tongue touches the teeth when making the sounds that these consonants represent. Examples of the former are αἴξ and λιμήν and of the latter are ἐλπί. In all neuter nouns the vocative singular is the same as the nominative singular.
  4. The dative plural ending σι (ν) is combined with third declension stems ending in consonants in accordance with the following:

    π, β, φ

    +

    -σι

    =

    -ψι

    κ, γ, χ

    +

    -σι

    =

    -ξι

    τ, δ, θ

    +

    -σι

    =

    -σι

    ν

    +

    -σι

    =

    -σι

    σ

    +

    -σι

    =

    -σι

    -αντ-

    +

    -σι

    =

    -ᾱσι

    -εντ-

    +

    -σι

    =

    -εισι

    -οντ-

    +

    -σι

    =

    -ουσι

    λ

    +

    -σι

    =

    -λσι (no change)

    ρ

    +

    -σι

    =

    -ρσι (no change)

  5. When -αντ-, -εντ-, and -οντ- are combined with the ending -σι, the nu and tau, -ντ-, drop out and a long vowel or diphthong appears by a process called compensatory lengthening. A diphthong that results from compensatory lengthening is called a spurious diphthong. Look carefully at the following dative plural nouns:

    αἰγσί (ν)

    becomes

    αἰξί (ν)

    ρχοντσι (ν)

    becomes

    ἄρχουσι (ν)

    ἐλπίδσι (ν)

    becomes

    ἐλπίσι (ν)

    σώματσι (ν)

    becomes

    σώμασι (ν)

    φύλακσι (ν)

    becomes

    φύλαξι (ν)

    χάριτσι (ν)

    becomes

    χάρισι (ν),

    noting how the letters combine and the form changes.

Four Subtypes of Third Declension Nouns

All third declension nouns use the same endings, but for some nouns the ending has been disguised by ablaut, contraction, or quantitative metathesis. Do not plan on memorizing each of the four subtypes, though you may find memorizing the contractions helpful. Do memorize the endings of sets 9 and 10. Use your knowledge of the endings of sets 9 and 10 to recognize the subtypes and case of each noun.

1) Subtype 1 Nouns with Stem Ending in ρ- or ερ- (ablaut):

Feminine

S

Pl

N

μήτηρ

μητέρες

A

μητέρα

μητέρας

G

μητρός

μητέρωv

D

μητρί

μητράσι (v)

V

μῆτερ

μητέρες

Masculine

S

Pl

N

vήρ

vδρες

A

vδρα

vδρας

G

vδρός

vδρv

D

vδρί

vδράσι (v)

V

vερ

vδρες

Feminine

S

Pl

N

μήτηρ

μητέρες

G

μητρός

μητέρωv

D

μητρί

μητράσι (v)

A

μητέρα

μητέρας

V

μῆτερ

μητέρες

Masculine

S

Pl

N

vήρ

vδρες

G

vδρός

vδρv

D

vδρί

vδράσι

A

vδρα

vδρας

V

vερ

vδρες

  1. μήτηρ uses two stems: μητρ- and μητερ-. Ablaut (vowel variation) in a stem is observed in these two forms: μήτηρ and μητερ-. Ablaut (vowel variation) is a regular feature of languages. Note the vowel variation in these forms: sing, sang, sung and ring, rang, rung.
  2. In the genitive and dative singular of μήτηρ, the stem is monosyllabic and so the accent shifts to the ultima: μητρός and μητρί.
  3. In the genitive and dative singular of vήρ, the stem is monosyllabic and so the accent shifts to the ultima: ἀνδρός, ἀνδρί, and ἀνδρῶν.
  4. In the dative plural the rho -ρ-, has expanded to -ρα-.
  5. Nouns that end in -ηρ, like θυγάτηρ, πατήρ, and γαστήρ, decline like μήτηρ not vήρ, whose stem differs slightly.
  6. Compare and contrast these Subtype 1 Nouns with the noun σωτήρ savior, noticing that it has one stem, σωτήρ.

    N

    σωτήρ

    σωτῆρες

    A

    σωτῆρα

    σωτῆρας

    G

    σωτῆρος

    σωτήρων

    D

    σωτῆρι

    σωτῆρσι (ν)

    V

    σωτήρ

    σωτῆρες

    N

    σωτήρ

    σωτῆρες

    G

    σωτῆρος

    σωτήρων

    D

    σωτῆρι

    σωτῆρσι (ν)

    A

    σωτῆρα

    σωτῆρας

    V

    σωτήρ

    σωτῆρες

2) Subtype 2 Nouns with Stem Ending in σ- (ablaut, contraction, and disappearance of intervocalic sigma, -σ-):

Neuter Nouns Ending in –ος: γένος race

S

Pl

N

γένος

γένεα, γένη (εσα)

A

γένος

γένεα, γένη (εσα)

G

γένεος, γένους (εσος)

γενέων, γενῶν (εσων)

D

γένει (εσι)

γένεσι (ν) (εσσι (ν))

V

γένος

γένεα, γένη (εσα)

S

Pl

N

γένος

γένεα, γένη (εσα)

G

γένεος, γένους (εσος)

γενέων, γενῶν (εσων)

D

γένει (εσι)

γένεσι (ν) (εσσι (ν))

A

γένος

γένεα, γένη (εσα)

V

γένος

γένεα, γένη (εσα)

  1. The stems are γενοσ- and γενεσ-.
  2. The letters in parentheses indicate where intervocalic sigma has dropped out: εσσι > -εσι, etc.
  3. In the Ionic dialect after sigma dropped out the vowels did not contract.
  4. In the Attic dialect after sigma dropped out the vowels did contract: εα > η; εο > ου; εω > ω. For a list of contractions that occurred, see CGCG 1.63.
  5. Similar nouns are ἄλγος pain; ἔπος word; ἔτος year; κράτος might; and τεῖχος wall.

Neuter Nouns Ending in –ας: γῆρας, old age

S

Pl

N

γῆρας

γήραα, γήρ (ασα)

A

γῆρας

γήραα, γήρ (ασα)

G

γήραος, γήρως (ασος)

γηράων, γηρῶν (ασων)

D

γήραϊ, γήρ (ασι)

γήρασι (ν) (ασσι (ν))

V

γῆρας

γήραα, γήρ (ασα)

S

Pl

N

γῆρας

γήραα, γήρ (ασα)

G

γήραος, γήρως (ασος)

γηράων, γηρῶν (ασων)

D

γήραϊ, γήρ (ασι)

γήρασι (ν) (ασσι (ν))

A

γῆρας

γήραα, γήρ (ασα)

V

γῆρας

γήραα, γήρ (ασα)

  1. The stem is γηρασ-.
  2. The letters in parentheses indicate where intervocalic sigma has dropped out.
  3. In the Ionic dialect after sigma dropped out the vowels did not contract.
  4. In the Attic dialect after sigma dropped out the vowels did contract: αα > ; αϊ > ; αο > ω; αω > ω. For a list of contractions that occurred, see CGCG 1.63.
  5. The noun γέρας gift of honor declines like γῆρας.

Feminine and Masculine Nouns Ending in ης-: τριήρης trireme

S

Pl

N

τριήρης

τριήρεες, τριήρεις (εσες)

A

τριήρεα, τριήρη (εσα)

τριήρεας, τριήρεις (εσας)

G

τριήρεος, τριήρους (εσος)

τριηρέων, τριήρων (εσων)

D

τριήρει (εσι)

τριήρεσι (ν) (εσσιν)

V

τριῆρες

τριήρεες, τριήρεις (εσες)

S

Pl

N

τριήρης

τριήρεες, τριήρεις (εσες)

G

τριήρεος, τριήρους (εσος)

τριηρέων, τριήρων (εσων)

D

τριήρει (εσι)

τριήρεσι (ν) (εσσιν)

A

τριήρεα, τριήρη (εσα)

τριήρεας, τριήρεις (εσας)

V

τριῆρες

τριήρεες, τριήρεις (εσες)

  1. The stem is τριηρεσ-.
  2. The letters in parentheses indicate where intervocalic sigma has dropped out.
  3. In the Ionic dialect after sigma dropped out the vowels did not contract.
  4. In the Attic dialect after sigma dropped out the vowels did contract: εα > η ; εε > ει; εο > ου; εω > ω.

Proper Nouns Ending in ης-: Σωκράτης Sokrates

S

Pl

N

Σωκράτης

Σωκράτεες, Σωκράτεις (εσες)

A

Σωκράτεα, Σωκράτη, Σωκράτην (εσα)

Σωκράτεας, Σωκράτεις (εσας)

G

Σωκράτεος, Σωκράτους (εσος)

Σωκράτέων, Σωκράτων (εσων)

D

Σωκράτει (εσι)

Σωκράτεσι (ν) (εσσιν)

V

Σωκράτες

Σωκράτεες, Σωκράτεις (εσες)

S

Pl

N

Σωκράτης

Σωκράτεες, Σωκράτεις (εσες)

G

Σωκράτεος, Σωκράτους (εσος)

Σωκράτέων, Σωκράτων (εσων)

D

Σωκράτει (εσι)

Σωκράτεσι (ν) (εσσιν)

A

Σωκράτεα, Σωκράτη, Σωκράτην (εσα)

Σωκράτεας, Σωκράτεις (εσας)

V

Σωκράτες

Σωκράτεες, Σωκράτεις (εσες)

  1. The stem is Σωκρατεσ-.
  2. The form Σωκράτην occurs by analogy with the accusative singular of first declension nouns.
  3. The letters in parentheses indicate where intervocalic sigma has dropped out.
  4. In the Ionic dialect after sigma dropped out the vowels did not contract.
  5. In the Attic dialect after sigma dropped out the vowels did contract: εα > η; εε > ει; εο > ου; εω > ω. For a list of contractions that occurred, see CGCG 1.63.
  6. The nouns Διογένης Diogenes, Περικλῆς Perikles, and Σοφοκλῆς Sophokles decline like Σωκράτης.

3) Subtype 3 Nouns with Stem Ending in ι- (ablaut, contraction, disappearance of intervocalic digamma, -ϝ-, quantitative metathesis):

Feminine

S

Pl

N

πόλις

πόλιες, πόληες, πόλεις (εϝες)

A

πόλιv

πόλιας, πόληας, πόλῑς, πόλεις

G

πόλιος, πόληoς, πόλεως

πόλιωv, πόλεων (εϝων)

D

πόλιι, πόλι, πόληι, πόλει (εϝι)

πολίεσσι (v), πόλεσι (ν), πόλισι (ν)

V

πόλι

πόλιες, πόληες, πόλεις (εϝες)

S

Pl

N

πόλις

πόλιες, πόληες, πόλεις (εϝες)

G

πόλιος, πόληoς, πόλεως

πόλιωv, πόλεων (εϝων)

D

πόλιι, πόλι, πόληι, πόλει (εϝι)

πολίεσσι (v), πόλεσι (ν), πόλισι (ν)

A

πόλιv

πόλιας, πόληας, πόλῑς, πόλεις

V

πόλι

πόλιες, πόληες, πόλεις (εϝες)

  1. The stems are πολεϝ-, πολι-, and πολη-. Note the ablaut (vowel variation).
  2. In the underlined vowels of the forms πόληoς and πόλεως, quantative metathesis (an exchange of vowel quantity) occurred.
  3. The letters in parentheses indicate where intervocalic digamma has dropped out.
  4. The accent of the form πόλεως reflects the accent of the earlier form πόληoς before quantitative metathesis occurred.
  5. Contractions occur in πόλει (εϝι) and πόλεις (εϝες): εϊ > ει; εε > ει.
  6. The accents of the forms πόλιωv and πόλεων are likely by analogy with πόλεως.
  7. The accusative plural πόλεις is either a later form modelled on the form of the nominative plural πόλεις or is built on the stem πολε.
  8. In the Ionic dialect after digamma dropped out the vowels did not contract.
  9. In the Attic dialect after digamma dropped out the vowels did contract: εε > ει. For a list of contractions that occurred, see CGCG 1.63.
  10. The nouns δύναμις power, ὕβρις brutality, ποίησις poetry, λύσις release, πρᾶξις act, μάντις seer, and ὄφις serpent decline like πόλις.

4) Subtype 4 Nouns with Stem Ending in ηυ- or ηϝ- (contraction, disappearance of intervocalic digamma, -ϝ-, quantitative metathesis):

Masculine

S

Pl

N

βασιλεύς (ηυς)

βασιλῆες, βασιλῆς, βασιλεῖς (ηϝες)

A

βασιλα, βασιλέα (ηϝα)

βασιλῆας, βασιλέᾱς later βασιλεῖς (ηϝας)

G

βασιλῆος, βασιλέως (ηϝος)

βασιλήων, βασιλέωv (ηϝων)

D

βασιλῆι, βασιλεῖ (ηϝι)

βασιλεῦσι (v) (ηυσι (ν))

V

βασιλεῦ (ηυ)

βασιλῆες, βασιλῆς, βασιλεῖς

S

Pl

N

βασιλεύς (ηυς)

βασιλῆες, βασιλῆς, βασιλεῖς (ηϝες)

G

βασιλῆος, βασιλέως (ηϝος)

βασιλήων, βασιλέωv (ηϝων)

D

βασιλῆι, βασιλεῖ (ηϝι)

βασιλεῦσι (v) (ηυσι (ν))

A

βασιλῆα, βασιλέα (ηϝα)

βασιλῆας, βασιλέᾱς later βασιλεῖς (ηϝας)

V

βασιλεῦ (ηυ)

βασιλῆες, βασιλῆς, βασιλεῖς

  1. The stems are βασιληυ- and βασιληϝ-.
  2. In βασιλεύς and βασιλεῦσι (v), the stem is shortened from βασιληυ- to βασιλεύ-.
  3. In the underlined vowels of the forms βασιλoς and βασιλέως quantative metathesis (an exchange of vowel quantity) occurred.
  4. Intervocalic digamma, -ϝ-, has dropped out.
  5. In these instances where intervocalic digamma, -ϝ-, has dropped out, quantitative metathesis occurs -ηο > -εω; -ηα > -εᾱ; -ηω > -εω; and -ηα > -εᾱ.
  6. Contractions occur in βασιλεῖ (ηϝι), βασιλῆς (ηϝες), and βασιλεῖς (εϝες): ηι > > ει; ηες > ης; εες > εις.
  7. The accusative plural βασιλεῖς is a later form modelled on the form of the nominative plural βασιλεῖς, which developed after βασιλῆς.
  8. In the Ionic dialect after digamma dropped out the vowels did not contract.
  9. In the Attic dialect after digamma dropped out the vowels did contract: ηι > > ει; ηες > ης; εες > εις. For a list of contractions that occurred, see CGCG 1.63.
  10. Similar nouns are ἱππεύς horserider, χαλκεύς metal-worker, Πρωτεύς Proteus, Ἀχαρνεύς, Akharnian.

Practice Identifying Third Declension Nouns. For the nouns below, tell whether the noun takes set 9 endings, set 10 endings, or declines like one of the four subtypes of third declension nouns. Το succeed, you need to identify correctly the gender and the nominative and genitive singular, matching each with the correct set or subtype.

Noun

Set or Subtype

γυνή, γυναικός woman, wife

set 9

δύναμις, δυνάμιος (δυνάμηος, δυνάμεως) power

πόλις

Ἕλλην, Ἕλληνος Greek

set 9

ἔτος, ἔτεος (ἔτους) τό year

γένος

ἱππεύς, ἱππῆος (ἱππέως) knight, cavalryman

βασιλεύς

μέρος, μέρεος (μέρους) τό share, portion, part; limb

γένος

ὄνομα, ὀνόματος τό name

set 10

πάθος, πάθεος (πάθους) τό suffering; experience; emotion

γένος

παῖς, παιδός child

set 9

πατήρ, πατρός father

μήτηρ

πλῆθος, πλήθεος (πλήθους) τό great number

γένος

πρᾶγμα, πράγματος τό matter, thing, affair; problem

set 10

πρᾶξις, πράξιος (πράξηος, πράξεως) action

πόλις

σῶμα, σώματος τό body

set 10

τεῖχος, τείχεος (τείχους) τό wall; (pl.) stronghold

γένος

τέλος, τέλεος (τέλους) τό end, boundary

γένος

φύσις, φύσιος (φύσηος, φύσεως) nature

πόλις

χάρις, χάριτος charm, grace, favor

set 9

χρῆμα, χρήματος τό thing; (pl.) wealth

set 10

Practice Understanding Adjective and Noun Agreement. Pick the article that agrees in gender, case, and number with the nouns below. Note that to perform this exercise correctly you must know both the gender and the case of each noun. To determine a noun’s gender you may cut and paste the noun into the search bar of the PDF, you may look the noun up in the glossary in this text, you may use the online resource, Logeion Lexicon, or Wiktionary1 or you may use any resource that gives you the correct gender of nouns. To determine the correct case, use your knowledge of stems and endings. Check your answers with those in the Answer Key.

Article that Agrees

Noun

Article that Agrees

Noun

ἀνήρ

πάθει

βασιλέα

παῖς

γένος

πατήρ

γυνή

πλῆθος

Δία

πόλεως

δυνάμεως

πολίτης

Ἕλληνος

πρᾶγμα

ἔτει

σώμασι (ν)

ἱππῆς

τείχους

μέρη

φύσιν

μητρός

χάριτες

ναυσί

χειρῶν

ὀνόμασι (ν)

χρήματα

Helen

Born to Leda and to Zeus, Helen has three siblings: Klytaimnestra, Kastor, and Polydeukes. Helen and Polydeukes (aka Pollux) are said to be the children of Zeus and Leda, the wife of Tyndareus, whom Zeus seduced after taking the form of a swan. Kastor and Klytaimnestra are the children of the mortals, Tyndareus and Leda. Helen is cited as the reason why the Greeks fought the the Trojan War, whose cause dates back to a time when the gods and goddesses were celebrating the wedding of the mortal Peleus to the goddess Thetis. All divinities were invited to the wedding except for Eris, the goddess of discord and strife. She attended anyway and threw a golden apple amidst the guests, announcing that it belonged to the most beautiful. Zeus’ wife Hera claimed the apple as did Athene, goddess of war and crafts, and Aphrodite, goddess of love. Each goddess thought she was the most beautiful and should be given the golden apple. Zeus turned the matter over to the Trojan prince, Paris (aka Alexandros) who presided over a beauty contest, referred to as the Judgment of Paris. Each goddess offered Paris a bribe. Hera offered him world dominion; Athene offered him martial excellence; and Aphrodite offered him Helen, the most beautiful woman in the world, though she was already married to the Greek king Menelaos. Paris chose Aphrodite and Helen. He sailed to Greece and took Helen from her home. She either went willingly, went against her will, or was sent to Egypt with a phantom Helen taking her place in Troy and in Paris’ arms. Menelaos and his brother Agamemnon assembled an army of Greeks, charged with going to Troy to take Helen back. In Euripides’ play, Helen (Ἑλένη), Helen has been in Egypt for the ten years of the Trojan War when her husband Menelaos arrives, shipwrecked on his journey home from Troy.

Practice Translating. Translate the sentences below, which are adapted from the prologue of Euripides’ Helen (Ἑλένη). Remember the meanings and functions of the cases presented in Module 7. Nominative case endings are bolded; genitive endings are italicized; dative endings are highlighted; and accusative endings are underlined. Note that the third declension increases the number of possible endings for the nominative singular. Check your understanding with the translations in the Answer Key. Now go back and read each sentence two or three times, noticing with each rereading how much better your understanding of the sentence becomes. Make this a habit and you will improve quickly.

Case

Ending

Function

Nominative

-α, -αι, -ευς, -η, -ης, -ις, -ο, -ος

subject of the verb

Genitive

-εως, -ης, -ου, -ος, -ους, -ων

possession, dependence, object of a preposition

Dative

-, -ι, -οι, -οις, -

indirect object of the verb; possession

Accusative

-α, -ας, -ε, -εα, -η, -ην, -ν, -ον, -ος

object of verb or preposition and motion toward

Ἑλένη: λόγος ὅτι Ζεὺς κύκνου μορφώματα λαμβάνει καὶ Λήδαν πέτεται εἰς ἐμὴν μητέρα. ὄνομά δʼ ἐστι ἐμοὶ Ἑλένη καὶ δὲ πάσχω κακά, λέγω τοῖς Ἑλλήνοις. ἔρχονται αἱ θεαὶ κάλλους πέρι εἰς Ἰδαῖον, Ἥρα, Κύπρις τε παρθένος τε. αἱ θεαὶ μορφῆς ἐθέλουσι διαπεραίνειν κρίσιν. Κύπρις νικάει καἰ ἐμὸν κάλλος Ἀλέξανδρι δίδωσιν. ἐκ δὲ Ἰδαίου λείπει Πάρις καὶ εἰς Σπάρτην ἥκει καὶ βούλεται ἐμὸν λέχος ἔχειν. Ἥρα δὲ μέμφεται τ’ οὐ νικάει τὰς θεὰς καὶ ἐξανεμόει ἐμ Ἀλεξάνδρ λέχη. Ἥρα δὲ δίδωσι οὐχ ἐμ ἀλλʼ ὁμοιόει ἐμοὶ εἴδωλον καὶ οὐρανοῦ συντίθησιν ἄπο. τ δὲ Διὸς βουλεύματα πόλεμον εἰσφέρει Ἑλλήνων χθονί καἰ Φρυξί. δὲ Ζεὺς βούλεται ὄχλου βροτῶν πλήθεος τε κουφίζειν μητέρα χθόνα καὶ γνωτὸν τιθέναι Ἀχιλλέα. λαμβάνει δέ ἐμ Ἑρμς καὶ νεφέλ καλύπτει καὶ εἰς οἶκον Πρωτέως ἱδρύει.

Verbs

*βούλομαι want, prefer; wish, be willing

κουφίζω be light; lighten, make light ‘x’ in acc. of ‘y’ in gen.; lift up, raise

διαπεραίνω bring to a conclusion, discuss

*λαμβάνω take, receive, capture

*δίδωμι give; δίκην δίδωμι I pay the penalty; δίδωμι χάριν I give thanks

*λέγω say, tell, speak

*εἰμί be, be possible

λείπω leave

εἰσφέρω bring, bring upon

μέμφομαι blame, criticize, find fault, complain

*ἐθέλω (θέλω) wish, be willing

νικάω win, conquer

ἐξανεμόω fill with air, inflate

ὁμοιόω make ‘x’ in acc. like ‘y’ in the dat.

*ἔρχομαι come, go

*πάσχω suffer

*ἔχω have, hold; be able + inf.; καλῶς ἔχειν to be well

πέτομαι fly

*ἥκω have come, be present

συντίθημι put together

ἱδρύω place

*τιθέναι to make

καλύπτω hide

*τίθημι put, place

Adjectives, Nouns, Pronouns

Νοminative

Genitive

Dative

Accusative

English Equivalent

ὧν

οἷς

what

Ἀλέξανδρος

Ἀλεξάνδρου

Ἀλέξανδρι

Ἀλέξανδρον

Alexandros, Paris

Ἀχιλλεύς

Ἀχιλλέως

Ἀχιλλεῖ

Ἀχιλλέα

Akhilleus

*αὐτή

αὐτῆς

αὐτῇ

αὐτήν

she, her, hers

*αὐτός

αὐτοῦ

αὐτῷ

αὐτόν

he, him, his

βουλεύματα

βουλευμάτων

βουλεύμασι

βουλεύματα

will

βροτοί

βροτῶν

βροτοῖς

βροτούς

mortals

γνωτός

γνωτοῦ

γνωτῷ

γνωτόν

known, famous

εἴδωλον

εἰδώλου

εἰδώλῳ

εἴδωλον

image, idol

Ἑλένη

Ἑλένης

Ἑλένῃ

Ἑλένην

Helen

*Ἕλληνοι

Ἑλλήνων

Ἑλλήνοις

Ἑλλήνους

Greeks

*ἐμά

ἐμῶν

ἐμοῖς

ἐμά

my

*ἐμόν

ἐμοῦ

ἐμῷ

ἐμόν

my

Ἑρμῆς 

Ἑρμοῦ 

Ἑρμῇ 

Ἑρμῆν 

Hermes

*Ζεύς

Διός

Διί

Δία

Zeus

Ἥρα

Ἥρας

Ἥρᾳ

Ἥραν

Hera

*θεαί

θεῶν

θεαῖς

θεάς

goddesses

Ἰδαῖον

Ἰδαίου

Ἰδαίῳ

δαῖον

Mt. Ida

*κακά

κακῶν

κακοῖς

κακά

evils

κάλλος

κάλλεος

κάλλει

κάλλος

beauty

κρίσις

κρίσεως

κρίσει

κρίσιν

judgment, trial

κύκνος

κύκνου

κύκνῳ

κύκνον

swan

Κύπρις 

Κύπριδος

Κύπριδι 

Κύπριν

Aphrodite 

Λήδα

Λήδας

Λήδᾳ

Λήδαν

Leda

λέχος

λέχεος (-ους)

λέχει

λέχος

bed, marriage-bed

λέχη

λέχων

λέχεσι (ν)

λέχη

bed, marriage-bed

*λόγος

λόγου

λόγῳ

λόγον

word, story

*μήτηρ

μητρός

μητρί

μητέρα

mother

μορφή

μορφῆς

μορφῇ

μορφήν

form, shape, beauty

μορφώματα

μορφωμάτων

μορφώμασι

μορφώματα

form, shape

νεφέλη

νεφέλης

νεφέλῃ

νεφέλην

cloud

οἶκος

οἴκου

οἴκῳ

οἶκον

house, palace

*ὄνομα

ὀνόματος

ὀνόματι

ὄνομα

name

οὐρανός

οὐρανοῦ

οὐρανῷ

οὐρανόν

heaven, sky

ὄχλος

ὄχλου

ὄχλῳ

ὄχλον

crowd, throng

παρθένος

παρθένου

παρθένῳ

παρθένον

Athena, maiden

Πάρις

Πάριδος

Πάριδι

Πάριν

Paris, Alexandros

*πλῆθος

πλήθεος (-ους)

πλήθει

πλῆθος

great number

*πόλεμος

πολέμου

πολέμῳ

πόλεμον

war

Πρωτεύς

Πρωτέως

Πρωτεῖ

Πρωτέα

Proteus

Σπάρτη

Σπάρτης

Σπάρτῃ

Σπάρτην

Sparta

Φρύγες

Φρυγῶν

Φρυξί (ν)

Φρύγας

Phrygians

χθών

χθονός

χθονί

χθόνα

earth, ground

  1. The asterisk indicates the top 250 most frequently occurring vocabulary, which you are to memorize

Practice Parsing Greek Sentences. Parse each word of the sentence found below. For nouns and pronouns, give case and function. For verbs, give person, number, tense, mood, and voice. For adverbs and conjunctions, identify them. For prepositional phrases, give the preposition and the preposition’s object. For adjectives, tell what noun they agree with in gender, number, and case.

τὰ δὲ Διὸς βουλεύματα πόλεμον εἰσφέρει Ἑλλήνων χθονί καἰ Φρυξί.

Check your answers with those in the Answer Key.

Module 13 Top 250 Vocabulary to be Memorized. Like learning the alphabet and endings, memorizing vocabulary is essential to acquiring language. The better you memorize the top 250 most frequently occurring vocabulary words the greater mastery of the language you will have.

Nouns

ἀνήρ, ἀνδρός man, husband

βασιλεύς, βασιλῆος (βασιλέως) king, chief

γυνή, γυναικός woman, wife

δύναμις, δυνάμιος (δυνάμηος, δυνάμεως) might, strength, power; force, army

Ἕλλην, Ἕλληνος Greek

νηῦς (ναῦς), νεός (νεώς) ship

παῖς, παιδός child

πατήρ, πατρός father

πόλις, πόλιος (πόληος, πόλεως) city

Verb

μέλλω be about to, be going to; be likely to + inf. (fut. inf. in Attic)

  1. The noun ναῦς is similar to the third declension noun βασιλεύς.

    N

    νηῦς, ναῦς

    νέες, νῆες

    (νῆϝες < νᾶϝες)

    A

    νέα, ναῦν

    (νᾱῦν)

    νῆας, νέας, ναῦς

    G

    νεός, νεώς

    (νηϝός < νᾱϝός)

    νεῶν

    (νηϝῶν < νᾱϝῶν)

    D

    νηΐ

    (νηϝί < νᾱϝί)

    νηυσί, ναυσί (ν)

    (νᾱυσί (ν))

    V

    ναῦ

    νέες, νῆες

    (νῆϝες < νᾶϝες)

N

νηῦς, ναῦς

νέες, νῆες

(νῆϝες < νᾶϝες)

G

νεός, νεώς

(νηϝός < νᾱϝός)

νεῶν

(νηϝῶν < νᾱϝῶν)

D

νηΐ

(νηϝί < νᾱϝί)

νηυσί, ναυσί (ν)

(νᾱυσί (ν))

A

νέα, ναῦν

(νᾱῦν)

νῆας, νέας, ναῦς

V

ναῦ

νέες, νῆες

(νῆϝες < νᾶϝες)


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