Appendices

© 2021 Philip S. Peek, CC BY 4.0 https://doi.org/10.11647/OBP.0264.39

Appendix I: Case and Function Chart

In making this chart, a primary consideration has been to simplify the complicated noun and pronoun case system so as to represent as many different functions as possible in the fewest number of categories. The Genitive of Dependence, for example, is a catchall category including almost any genitive noun that must be translated with another noun. Likewise the Dative Indirect Object covers a number of incidences typically found under the Dative of Reference or Dative of Interest categories. The underlying philosophy is to explain much with less. I recommend you keep this chart at your elbow when you translate. I also recommend that you consult Smyth’s Greek Grammar or The Cambridge Grammar of Classical Greek for fuller differentiated categories and examples. Because a few functions often account for the majority of occurrences, this chart presents the functions in order of frequency. Frequency was determined by parsing one complete book of Herodotos and two plays of Euripides. An exception is the genitive, dative, or accusative case as an object of a preposition, which is placed last, though it occurs with great frequency. This chart covers information learned in both Part I and Part II of the 21st-Century series.

None indicates that there is no preposition to supply when translating from Greek into English. None (ἐκ, ἀπό) indicates that there is no preposition to supply when translating from Greek into English and gives the preposition that is commonly present in ancient Greek.

CASE

FUNCTION

PREPOSITION TO SUPPLY

Nominative Case

1. Subject: Καμβύσης ἐστρατεύετο, Kambyses marched

none

2. Predicate Nominative: ὄνομα αὐτῇ ἦν Νίτητις, her name was Nitetis

none

Accusative

1. Direct Object: ταῦτα αὐτῇ λέγω I say these things to her

none

2. Accusative Subject of Infinitive or Participle

Indirect Statement: ἔφη αὐτὴν βλάπτειν αὐτόν: he said she hurt him; οἰκὸς ἦν τῆς θυγατρὸς ὄντας παῖδας it was likely that they were the children of his daughter

none

ὥστε (result): ὥστε τὴν ἡμέρην νύκτα γενέσθαι and so day became night; ὥστε πεσεῖν πολλούς and so many fell

none

πρίν: πρὶν Κύρον σφέων βασιλεῦσαι before Kyros ruled them

none

Other Instances: δεῖ αὐτὸν ἰέναι it is necessary for him to go; συνήνεικε ὑμᾶς εἰδέναι it happened that you knew

for or varies based on context

3. Acc. of Respect: ἀνὴρ ἡλικίαν νέος a man young in age

in

πολύ τε ἐκράτησαν αὐτούς they conquered them completely

none

4. Duration of Time and Extent of Space: ὀκτωκαίδεκα ἔτη for eighteen years; ὁδὸν μακράν a long journey

for or none

5. Accusative Absolute: οὕτως ἔχον: this being so

none

6. Object of Preposition (often shows motion toward; preposition can be omitted in poetry): πρὸς Ὅμηρον to Homer; εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν to the sea πέτεται Λήδαν he flies to Leda

none or varies based on context

Genitive

1. Possession: νεκρὸς ἀνθρώπου, the corpse of a man

of

2. Partitive: ἓξ τῶν ἀνδρῶν, six of the men

of

3. Dependence: χρυσοῦ δῶρα gifts of gold

of

4. Object of a Verb or Verb’s Prefix: χρημάτων ἐδέοντο, they were in need of money; ἐκείνων ταῦτα προτίθησι, he places these things before those.

none or varies by prefix’s meaning

5. Absolute: ἐπιφανοῦς τούτου γενομένου this being clear

none

6. Comparison: ἵππου ὠκύτερος swifter than a horse

than

7. With Certain Adjectives or Adverbs: σοῦ ἄξιος worthy of you; ἀξίως λόγου worthy of record

of

8. Value: αὐτὸν πολλοῦ τιμᾷ she honors him a lot; μισθοῦ τὴν θύραν ἤνοιγεν he opened the door for a fee

none or for, of

9. Separation: τὰ πηδάλια παρέλυσε νεῶν he freed the rudders from the ships

from, away from

10. Time: δέκα ἡμερῶν within ten days

within

11. Object of Preposition (often shows motion away from): ὑπὸ Κύρου by Kyros; ἐκ τῆς οἰκίᾱς from the house

none

Dative

1. Indirect Object: δίκην αὐτῇ δίδωμι, I give justice to her; ὑμῖν ὁρτὴν ποιέω, I hold a festival for you

to, for

2. Object of Verb or Verb’s Prefix: ἐπὶ κρήνην αὐτοῖς ἡγήσασθαι, to lead them to the spring; τὴν ἐλευθερίην ὑμῖν περιτίθημι I place freedom around you

none or varies with the prefix’s meaning

3. Means or Instrument: ἔχουσιν αὐτὸ δόλῳ, they hold it by trickery; ἔρχεται νηί, she goes by ship

by, with

4. Possession (often with verb ‘to be’): ὄνομα αὐτῇ ἦν Νίτητις, her name was Nitetis; τῷ Κύρῳ υἱός, a son to Kyros

to, of

5. Dative with an Adjective, Adverb, or Noun: αὐτῷ ἀσφαλές εἶναι to be safe for him πρὸς ἡδονὴν αὐτῇ for pleasure to her

for, to

6. Dative with a Verb and Infinitive: δεῖ αὐτῇ ἰέναι it is necessary for her to go

for

7. Dative of Respect: ἀνὴρ ἡλικίᾳ νέος a man young in age

in

8. Time When: πέμπτῃ ἡμέρᾳ on the fifth day

on

9. Dative of Degree of Difference: πoλλῷ by much

by

10. Dative of Accompaniment: αὐτὸν ἠφάνισε ἵππῳ he hid him with his horse; ἔβη σὺν τῷ στρατῷ he went with his army

with or none (σύν)

11. Dative of Agent with Perf. and Plup. Pass.: λέλειμμαι αὐτῷ I have been left by him

by

12. Place Where: ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ in Egypt or Μαραθῶνι at Marathon

none (ἐν) or in, on, at

13. Object of Preposition (often shows place where): σὺν Ὁμήρῳ with Homer; ἐν τῷ νηῷ in the temple

none

Vocative

1. Direct Address: βασιλεῦ, oh king

none

CASE

FUNCTION

PREPOSITION TO SUPPLY

Nominative Case

1. Subject: Καμβύσης ἐστρατεύετο, Kambyses marched

none

2. Predicate Nominative: ὄνομα αὐτῇ ἦν Νίτητις, her name was Nitetis

none

Genitive

1. Possession: νεκρὸς ἀνθρώπου, the corpse of a man

of

2. Partitive: ἓξ τῶν ἀνδρῶν, six of the men

of

3. Dependence: χρυσοῦ δῶρα gifts of gold

of

4. Object of a Verb or Verb’s Prefix: χρημάτων ἐδέοντο, they were in need of money; ἐκείνων ταῦτα προτίθησι, he places these things before those.

none or varies by prefix’s meaning

5. Absolute: ἐπιφανοῦς τούτου γενομένου this being clear

none

6. Comparison: ἵππου ὠκύτερος swifter than a horse

than

7. With Certain Adjectives or Adverbs: σοῦ ἄξιος worthy of you; ἀξίως λόγου worthy of record

of

8. Value: αὐτὸν πολλοῦ τιμᾷ she honors him a lot; μισθοῦ τὴν θύραν ἤνοιγεν he opened the door for a fee

none or for, of

9. Separation: τὰ πηδάλια παρέλυσε νεῶν he freed the rudders from the ships

from, away from

10. Time: δέκα ἡμερῶν within ten days

within

11. Object of Preposition (often shows motion away from): ὑπὸ Κύρου by Kyros; ἐκ τῆς οἰκίᾱς from the house

none

Dative

1. Indirect Object: δίκην αὐτῇ δίδωμι, I give justice to her; ὑμῖν ὁρτὴν ποιέω, I hold a festival for you

to, for

2. Object of Verb or Verb’s Prefix: ἐπὶ κρήνην αὐτοῖς ἡγήσασθαι, to lead them to the spring; τὴν ἐλευθερίην ὑμῖν περιτίθημι I place freedom around you

none or varies with the prefix’s meaning

3. Means or Instrument: ἔχουσιν αὐτὸ δόλῳ, they hold it by trickery; ἔρχεται νηί, she goes by ship

by, with

4. Possession (often with verb ‘to be’): ὄνομα αὐτῇ ἦν Νίτητις, her name was Nitetis; τῷ Κύρῳ υἱός, a son to Kyros

to, of

5. Dative with an Adjective, Adverb, or Noun: αὐτῷ ἀσφαλές εἶναι to be safe for him πρὸς ἡδονὴν αὐτῇ for pleasure to her

for, to

6. Dative with a Verb and Infinitive: δεῖ αὐτῇ ἰέναι it is necessary for her to go

for

7. Dative of Respect: ἀνὴρ ἡλικίᾳ νέος a man young in age

in

8. Time When: πέμπτῃ ἡμέρᾳ on the fifth day

on

9. Dative of Degree of Difference: πoλλῷ by much

by

10. Dative of Accompaniment: αὐτὸν ἠφάνισε ἵππῳ he hid him with his horse; ἔβη σὺν τῷ στρατῷ he went with his army

with or none (σύν)

11. Dative of Agent with Perf. and Plup. Pass.: λέλειμμαι αὐτῷ I have been left by him

by

12. Place Where: ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ in Egypt or Μαραθῶνι at Marathon

none (ἐν) or in, on, at

13. Object of Preposition (often shows place where): σὺν Ὁμήρῳ with Homer; ἐν τῷ νηῷ in the temple

none

Accusative

1. Direct Object: ταῦτα αὐτῇ λέγω I say these things to her

none

2. Accusative Subject of Infinitive or Participle Indirect Statement: ἔφη αὐτὴν βλάπτειν αὐτόν: he said she hurt him; οἰκὸς ἦν τῆς θυγατρὸς ὄντας παῖδας it was likely that they were the children of his daughter

none

ὥστε (result): ὥστε τὴν ἡμέρην νύκτα γενέσθαι and so day became night; ὥστε πεσεῖν πολλούς and so many fell

none

πρίν: πρὶν Κύρον σφέων βασιλεῦσαι before Kyros ruled them

none

Other Instances: δεῖ αὐτὸν ἰέναι it is necessary for him to go; συνήνεικε ὑμᾶς εἰδέναι it happened that you knew

for or varies based on context

3. Acc. of Respect: ἀνὴρ ἡλικίαν νέος a man young in age

in

πολύ τε ἐκράτησαν αὐτούς they conquered them completely

none

4. Duration of Time and Extent of Space: ὀκτωκαίδεκα ἔτη for eighteen years; ὁδὸν μακράν a long journey

for or none

5. Accusative Absolute: οὕτως ἔχον: this being so

none

6. Object of Preposition (often shows motion toward; preposition can be omitted in poetry): πρὸς Ὅμηρον to Homer; εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν to the sea πέτεται Λήδαν he flies to Leda

none or varies based on context

Vocative

1. Direct Address: βασιλεῦ, oh king

none

The above are all case functions for nouns and pronouns. Remember that adjectives, which include participles, always agree with the nouns or pronouns they modify in gender, number, and case. If no noun or pronoun is present, supply one from the gender and number of the adjective unless it is clear that a noun or pronoun must be supplied from context.

Appendix II: Infinitives

Remember that in English and in Greek the infinitive is unmarked for person and for number. Ιt is classified as a verbal noun and is best understood by thinking of its function as completing or enhancing the meaning of adjectives, clauses, nouns, and verbs. This is why the infinitive is referred to as complement. Sometimes classified as a mood, the infinitive is potential in meaning, ἐν δυνάμει, because its action may or may not be realized. There are two types of infinitives, the declarative and the dynamic. Both the declarative and the dynamic infinitives refer to actions which exist potentially or ἐν δυνάμει. The dynamic infinitive is negated by the abverb μή not and not οὐ not. οὐ not typically negates the declarative infinitive with some exceptions. For more on the declarative and dynamic infinitives, see CGCG 51.

The Infinitive as a Complement

(1)

As a complement to modal verbs, δεῖ, δύναμαι, ἔξεστι, ἔχω, κιδυνεύω, προσήκει, χρή:

δεῖ ποιέειν

it is necessary to create.

(2)

As a complement to verbs of wishing and desiring αἱρέομαι, βουλεύω, βούλομαι, διανοέομαι, δοκέει, ἐθέλω, σπουδάζω:

αἱρέομαι ὀρχέεσθαι

I choose to dance.

(3)

As a complement to knowledge verbs διδάσκω, ἐπίσταμαι, μανθάνω:

διδάσκω ἑλληνίζειν

I teach how to speak Greek.

(4)

As a complement to verbs of command, compulsion, persuasion, prevention, αἰτέω, ἀναγκάζω, ἀπέχω, δέομαι, εἴργω, κελεύω, πείθω:

αἰτέω σὲ νομίζειν

I ask you to believe.

(5)

As a complement to verbs of starting and stopping, ἄρχομαι, μέλλω, παύω:

ἄρχομαι εἰδέναι

I begin to know.

(6)

Epexegetically as a complement to adjectives and nouns, ἀγαθόν, ἄξιον, δεινόν, καλόν, καιρός, νομός, σχολή, ὥρα:

δεινόν ὁράειν

It is awesome to see.

(7)

Purpose often with verbs of giving, motion, receiving, taking:

σῖτον ἐσθίειν ἐρχόμεθα

we go to eat food.

τἠν χώραν δίδωμι αὐτοῖς διαρπάσαι

I give them the country to plunder.

The Infinitive as a Noun

(8)

Articular:

τὸ μάχεσθαι κάλλιστον

fighting is best.

περὶ τοῦ φεύγειν νομίζομεν

we consider fleeing.

The Infinitive as a Finite Verb

(9)

Indirect Statement:

ἔφη αὐτοὺς ἐλεύσεσθαι

he said that they would come.

ἔφη εἶναι μακαρίᾱ

she said that she is blessed.

(10)

After πρίν and ὥστε:

πολλὰ ἔμαθον πρὶν θανεῖν

I learned much before I died.

λέγει ὥστε ἡμᾶς ἀκοῦσαι

she speaks and so we listen.

(11)

As an imperative:

ἔφη· Φεύγειν

he said, flee!

ἔφη· Σπεύδειν

she said, hurry up!

Appendix III: Apposition of Nouns and Pronouns

A common grammatical occurrence that happens in all cases of nouns and pronouns is apposition. Consider the following examples. In each the main noun is bolded and the noun in apposition is underlined.

Nominative

ἐγὼ ταῦτα τῷ Ὁμήρῳ, ποιητής, δίδωμι.

I, a poet, give these things to Homer.

Genitive

τὸ βιβλίον τοῦ Ὁμήρου, ποιητοῦ, σοὶ δίδωμι.

I give to you the book of Homer, a poet.

Dative

ἐγὼ ταῦτα τῷ Ὁμήρῳ, ποιητῇ, δίδωμι.

I give these things to Homer, a poet.

Αccusative

ὁράει τὸν Ὅμηρον ποιητήν.

She sees Homer, the poet.

Vocative

βασιλεῦ, Κῦρε, ἔλθε.

King Kyros, come.

The important items to note are that the two nouns refer to the same person or thing and that each has the same case.

Appendix IV: Adjectives, Nouns, and Pronouns

First and Second Declension Noun Endings

F Set 1

F Set 2

F Set 3

F Set 4

M Set 5

M Set 6

M/F Set 7

N Set 8

N

η

αι

αι

α

αι

α

αι

ης

αι

ᾱς

αι

ος

οι

ον

α

A

ην

ᾱς

ᾱν

ᾱς

αν

ᾱς

αν

ᾱς

ην

ᾱς

ᾱν

ᾱς

ον

ους

ον

α

G

ης

ῶν

ᾱς

ῶν

ης

ῶν

ᾱς

ῶν

ου

ῶν

ου

ῶν

ου

ων

ου

ων

D

αις

ᾱͅ

αις

αις

ᾱͅ

αις

αις

ᾱͅ

αις

οις

οις

V

η

αι

αι

α

αι

α

αι

α,η

αι

αι

ε

οι

ον

α

Third Declension Noun Endings

M/F Set 9

N Set 10

N

---

ες

---

α

A

α, ν

ας

---

α

G

ος

ων

ος

ων

D

ι

σι (ν)

ι

σι (ν)

V

---

ες

---

α

First Declension Nouns

N

τέχνη

χώρᾱ

θάλαττα

πεῖρα

στρατιώτης

νεανίᾱς

A

τέχνην

χώρᾱν

θάλατταν

πεῖραν

στρατιώτην

νεανίᾱν

G

τέχνης

χώρᾱς

θαλάττης

πείρᾱς

στρατιώτου

νεανιου

D

τέχνῃ

χώρᾱͅ

θαλάττῃ

πείρᾱͅ

στρατιώτῃ

νεανίᾱͅ

V

τέχνη

χώρᾱ

θάλαττα

πεῖρα

στρατιῶτα

νεανίᾱ

N

τέχναι

χῶραι

θάλατται

πεῖραι

στρατιῶται

νεανίαι

A

τέχνᾱς

χώρᾱς

θαλάττᾱς

πείρᾱς

στρατιώτᾱς

νεανίᾱς

G

τεχνῶν

χωρῶν

θαλαττῶν

πειρῶν

στρατιωτῶν

νεανιῶν

D

τέχναις

χώραις

θαλάτταις

πείραις

στρατιώταις

νεανίαις

V

τέχναι

χῶραι

θάλατται

πεῖραι

στρατιῶται

νεανίαι

2nd Declension Nouns

Third Declension Nouns

N

λόγος

δῶρον

φύλαξ

αἴξ

ἐλπίς

χάρις

σῶμα

A

λόγον

δῶρον

φύλακα

αἶγα

ἐλπίδα

χάριν

σῶμα

G

λόγου

δώρου

φύλακος

αἰγός

ἐλπίδος

χάριτος

σώματος

D

λόγῳ

δώρῳ

φύλακι

αἰγί

ἐλπίδι

χάριτι

σώματι

V

λόγε

δῶρον

φύλαξ

αἴξ

ἐλπί

χάρι

σῶμα

N

λόγοι

δῶρα

φύλακες

αἶγες

ἐλπίδες

χάριτες

σώματα

A

λόγους

δῶρα

φύλακας

αἶγας

ἐλπίδας

χάριτας

σώματα

G

λόγων

δώρων

φυλάκων

αἰγῶν

ἐλπίδων

χαρίτων

σωμάτων

D

λόγοις

δώροις

φύλαξι(ν)

αἰξί(ν)

ἐλπίσι(ν)

χάρισι(ν)

σώμασι(ν)

V

λόγοι

δῶρα

φύλακες

αἶγες

ἐλπίδες

χάριτες

σώματα

1) Subtype 1 Nouns with Stem Ending in ρ- or ερ-:

Feminine

S

Pl

N

μήτηρ

μητέρες

A

μητέρα

μητέρας

G

μητρός

μητέρωv

D

μητρί

μητράσι (v)

V

μῆτερ

μητέρες

Masculine

S

Pl

N

vήρ

vδρες

A

vδρα

vδρας

G

vδρός

vδρv

D

vδρί

vδράσι (v)

V

vερ

vδρες

2) Subtype 2 Nouns with Stem Ending in σ- (ablaut, contraction, and disappearance of intervocalic sigma, -σ-):

Neuter Nouns Ending in –ος: γένος race

S

Pl

N

γένος

γένεα or γένη (εσα)

A

γένος

γένεα or γένη (εσα)

G

γένεος or γένους (εσος)

γενέων or γενῶν (εσων)

D

γένει (εσι)

γένεσι (ν) (εσσι (ν))

V

γένος

γένεα or γένη (εσα)

Neuter Nouns Ending in –ας: γῆρας, old age

S

Pl

N

γῆρας

γήραα or γήρ (ασα)

A

γῆρας

γήραα or γήρ (ασα)

G

γήραος or γήρως (ασος)

γηράων or γηρῶν (ασων)

D

γήραϊ or γήρ (ασι)

γήρασι (ν) (ασσι (ν))

V

γῆρας

γήραα or γήρ (ασα)

Feminine and Masculine Nouns Ending in ης-: τριήρης trireme

S

Pl

N

τριήρης

τριήρεες or τριήρεις (εσες)

A

τριήρεα or τριήρη (εσα)

τριήρεας or τριήρεις (εσας)

G

τριήρεος or τριήρους (εσος)

τριηρέων or τριήρων (εσων)

D

τριήρει (εσι)

τριήρεσι (ν) (εσσιν)

V

τριῆρες

τριήρεες or τριήρεις (εσες)

Proper Nouns Ending in ης-: Σωκράτης Sokrates

S

Pl

N

Σωκράτης

Σωκράτεες or Σωκράτεις (εσες)

A

Σωκράτεα, Σωκράτη, or Σωκράτην (εσα)

Σωκράτεας or Σωκράτεις (εσας)

G

Σωκράτεος or Σωκράτους (εσος)

Σωκράτέων or Σωκράτων (εσων)

D

Σωκράτει (εσι)

Σωκράτεσι (ν) (εσσιν)

V

Σωκράτες

Σωκράτεες or Σωκράτεις (εσες)

Subtype 3 Nouns with Stem Ending in ι-:

Feminine

S

Pl

N

πόλις

πόλιες, πόληες, or πόλεις (εϝες)

A

πόλιv

πόλιας, πόληας, πόλῑς, or πόλεις

G

πόλιος, πόληoς, or πόλεως

πόλιωv or πόλεων (εϝων)

D

πόλιι, πόλι, πόληι or πόλει (εϝι)

πολίεσσι (v), πόλεσι (ν), πόλισι (ν)

V

πόλι

πόλιες, πόληες, or πόλεις (εϝες)

Subtype 4 Nouns with Stem Ending in ηυ- or ηϝ-:

Masculine

S

Pl

N

βασιλεύς (ηυς)

βασιλῆες or βασιλῆς or βασιλεῖς (ηϝες)

A

βασιλῆα or βασιλέα (ηϝα)

βασιλῆας or βασιλέᾱς later βασιλεῖς (ηϝας)

G

βασιλῆος or βασιλέως (ηϝος)

βασιλήων or βασιλέωv (ηϝων)

D

βασιλῆι or βασιλεῖ (ηϝι)

βασιλεῦσι (v) (ηυσι (ν))

V

βασιλεῦ (ηυ)

βασιλῆες or βασιλῆς or βασιλεῖς

Relative Pronoun

S

N

ὅς

A

ἥν

G

οὗ

ἧς

οὗ

D

Pl

N

οἵ

αἵ

A

οὕς

ἅς

G

ὧν

ὧν

ὧν

D

οἷς

αἷς

οἷς

1st Person Pronoun

S

Pl

N

ἐγώ

ἡμεῖς

A

ἐμέ με

ἡμᾶς

G

ἐμοῦ, μου

ἡμῶν

D

ἐμοί, μοι

ἡμῖν

2nd Person Pronoun

S

Pl

N

σύ

ὑμεῖς

A

σέ σε

ὑμᾶς

G

σοῦ, σου

ὑμῶν

D

σοί, σοι

ὑμῖν

3rd Person Pronoun

S

M/F Pl

N Pl

Ν

---

σφεῖς

σφέα or σφεα

A

,

σφέας or σφεας

σφέα or σφεα

G

οὗ, οὑ

σφέων or σφεων

σφέων or σφεων

D

οἷ, οἱ

σφίσιν or σφισιν

σφίσιν or σφισιν

Adjectives and Pronouns, Mixed Declension

Ν

εἷς

μία

ἕν

οὐδείς

οὐδεμία

οὐδέν

μηδείς

μηδεμία

μηδέν

A

ἕνα

μίαν

ἕνα

οὐδένα

οὐδεμίαν

οὐδέν

μηδένα

μηδεμίαν

μηδέν

G

ἑνός

μιᾶς

ἑνός

οὐδενός

οὐδεμιᾶς

οὐδενός

μηδενός

μηδεμιᾶς

μηδενός

D

ἑνί

μιᾷ

ἑνί

οὐδενί

οὐδεμιᾷ

οὐδενί

μηδενί

μηδεμιᾷ

μηδενί

Adjectives and Pronouns

N

αὐτός

αὐτή

αὐτό

οὗτος

αὕτη

τοῦτο

ὅδε

ἥδε

τόδε

A

αὐτόν

αὐτήν

αὐτό

τοῦτον

ταύτην

τοῦτο

τόνδε

τήνδε

τόδε

G

αὐτοῦ

αὐτῆς

αὐτοῦ

τούτου

ταύτης

τούτου

τοῦδε

τῆσδε

τοῦδε

D

αὐτῷ

αὐτῇ

αὐτῷ

τούτῳ

ταύτῃ

τούτῳ

τῷδε

τῇδε

τῷδε

N

αὐτοί

αὐταί

αὐτά

οὗτοι

αὗται

ταῦτα

οἵδε

αἵδε

τάδε

A

αὐτούς

αὐτάς

αὐτά

τούτους

ταύτας

ταῦτα

τούσδε

τάσδε

τάδε

G

αὐτῶν

αὐτῶν

αὐτῶν

τούτων

τούτων

τούτων

τῶνδε

τῶνδε

τῶνδε

D

αὐτοῖς

αὐταῖς

αὐτοῖς

τούτοις

ταύταις

τούτοις

τοῖσδε

ταῖσδε

τοῖσδε

N

ἐκεῖνος

ἐκείνη

ἐκεῖνο

τίς

τί

τις

τι

A

ἐκεῖνον

ἐκείνην

ἐκεῖνο

τίνα

τί

τινά

τι

G

ἐκείνου

ἐκείνης

ἐκείνου

τίνος, τοῦ

τίνος, τοῦ

τινός, του

τινός, του

D

ἐκείνῳ

ἐκείνῃ

ἐκείνῳ

τίνι, τῷ

τίνι, τῷ

τινί, τῳ

τινί, τῳ

N

κεῖνοι

ἐκεῖναι

ἐκεῖνα

τίνες

τίνα

τινές

τινά

A

ἐκείνους

ἐκείνας

ἐκεῖνα

τίνας

τίνα

τινάς

τινά

G

ἐκείνων

ἐκείνων

ἐκείνων

τίνων

τίνων

τινῶν

τινῶν

D

κείνοις

ἐκείναις

ἐκείνοις

τίσι(ν)

τίσι(ν)

τισί(ν)

τισί(ν)

The Indefinite Adjective and Pronoun

N

ὅστις

ἥτι

ὅτι

A

ὅντινα

ἥντινα

ὅτι

G

οὗτινος, ὅτου

ἧστινος

οὗτινος, ὅτου

D

ᾧτινι, ὅτῳ

ᾗτινι

ὧτινι, ὅτῳ

The Definitive Article

N

τό

A

τόν

τήν

τό

G

τοῦ

τῆς

τοῦ

D

τῷ

τῇ

τῷ

N

οἵτινες

αἵτινες

ἅτινα

A

οὕστινας

ἅστινας

ἅτινα

G

ὧντινων, ὅτων

ὧντινων

ὧντινων, ὅτων

D

οἷστισι (ν), ὅτοις

αἷστισι (ν)

οἷστισι(ν), ὅτοις

N

οἱ

αἱ

τά

A

τούς

τάς

τά

G

τῶν

τῶν

τῶν

D

τοῖς

ταῖς

τοῖς

Three Termination Adjectives

N

χαλεπός

χαλεπή

χαλεπόν

A

χαλεπόν

χαλεπήν

χαλεπόν

G

χαλεποῦ

χαλεπῆς

χαλεποῦ

D

χαλεπῷ

χαλεπῇ

χαλεπῷ

V

χαλεπέ

χαλεπή

χαλεπόν

N

ἄξιος

ἀξίᾱ

ἄξιον

A

ἄξιον

ἀξίᾱν

ἄξιον

G

ἀξίου

ἀξίᾱς

ἀξίου

D

ἀξίῳ

ἀξίᾱͅ

ἀξίῳ

V

ἄξιε

ἀξίᾱ

ἄξιον

N

χαλεποί

χαλεπαί

χαλεπά

A

χαλεπούς

χαλεπάς

χαλεπά

G

χαλεπῶν

χαλεπῶν

χαλεπῶν

D

χαλεποῖς

χαλεπαῖς

χαλεποῖς

V

χαλεποί

χαλεπαί

χαλεπά

N

ἄξιοι

ἄξιαι

ἄξια

A

ἀξίους

ἀξίᾱς

ἄξια

G

ἀξίων

ἀξίων

ἀξίων

D

ἀξίοις

ἀξίαις

ἀξίοις

V

ἄξιοι

ἄξιαι

ἄξια

Two Termination Adjectives

N

ἄδικος

ἄδικον

A

ἄδικον

ἄδικον

G

ἀδίκου

ἀδίκου

D

ἀδίκῳ

ἀδίκῳ

V

ἄδικε

ἄδικον

N

δικοι

ἄδικα

A

ἀδίκους

ἄδικα

G

ἀδίκων

ἀδίκων

D

ἀδίκοις

ἀδίκοις

V

ἄδικοι

ἄδικα

Mixed Declension Adjectives

N

πᾶς

πᾶσα

πᾶν

μέγας

μεγάλη

μέγα

A

πάντα

πᾶσαν

πᾶν

μέγαν

μεγάλην

μέγα

G

παντός

πάσης

παντός

μεγάλου

μεγάλης

μεγάλου

D

παντί

πάσῃ

παντί

μεγάλῳ

μεγάλῃ

μεγάλῳ

N

πάντες

πᾶσαι

πάντα

μεγάλοι

μεγάλαι

μεγάλα

A

πάντας

πάσᾱς

πάντα

μεγάλους

μεγάλᾱς

μεγάλα

G

πάντων

πασῶν

πάντων

μεγάλων

μεγάλων

μεγάλων

D

πᾶσι (ν)

πάσαις

πᾶσι (ν)

μεγάλοις

μεγάλοις

μεγάλοις

N

πολύς

πολλή

πολύ

A

πολύν

πολλήν

πολύ

G

πολλοῦ

πολλῆς

πολλοῦ

D

πολλῷ

πολλῇ

πολλῷ

N

πολλοί

πολλαί

πολλά

A

πολλούς

πολλάς

πολλά

G

πολλῶν

πολλῶν

πολλῶν

D

πολλοῖς

πολλαῖς

πολλοῖς

Mixed Declension Adjective

Μ

F

N

N

ἡδύς

ἡδεῖα

ἡδύ

A

ἡδύν

ἡδεῖαν

ἡδύ

G

ἡδέος

ἡδείᾱς

ἡδέος

D

ἡδεῖ

ἡδείᾱͅ

ἡδεῖ

V

ἡδύ

ἡδεῖα

ἡδύ

Third Declension Adjective

M/F

N

N

ἀληθής

ἀληθές

A

ἀληθέα, ἀληθῆ

ἀληθές

G

ἀληθέος, ἀληθοῦς

ἀληθέος, ἀληθοῦς

D

ἀληθεῖ

ἀληθεῖ

V

ἀληθές

ἀληθές

N

ἡδεῖς

ἡδεῖαι

ἡδέα

A

ἡδεῖς

ἡδείᾱς

ἡδέα

G

ἡδέων

ἡδειῶν

ἡδέων

D

ἡδέσι (ν)

ἡδείαις

ἡδέσι (ν)

V

ἡδεῖς

ἡδεῖαι

ἡδέα

N

ἀληθέες, ἀληθεῖς

ἀληθέα, ἀληθῆ

A

ἀληθεῖς

ἀληθέα, ἀληθῆ

G

ἀληθέων, ἀληθῶν

ἀληθέων, ἀληθῶν

D

ἀληθέσι (ν)

ἀληθέσι (ν)

V

ἀληθέες, ἀληθεῖς

ἀληθέα, ἀληθῆ

First and Second Declension Noun Endings

F Set 1

F Set 2

F Set 3

F Set 4

M Set 5

M Set 6

M/F Set 7

N Set 8

N

η

αι

αι

α

αι

α

αι

ης

αι

ᾱς

αι

ος

οι

ον

α

G

ης

ῶν

ᾱς

ῶν

ης

ῶν

ᾱς

ῶν

ου

ῶν

ου

ῶν

ου

ων

ου

ων

D

αις

ᾱͅ

αις

αις

ᾱͅ

αις

αις

ᾱͅ

αις

οις

οις

A

ην

ᾱς

ᾱν

ᾱς

αν

ᾱς

αν

ᾱς

ην

ᾱς

ᾱν

ᾱς

ον

ους

ον

α

V

η

αι

αι

α

αι

α

αι

α,η

αι

αι

ε

οι

ον

α

Third Declension Noun Endings

M/F Set 9

N Set 10

N

---

ες

---

α

G

ος

ων

ος

ων

D

ι

σι (ν)

ι

σι (ν)

A

α, ν

ας

---

α

V

---

ες

---

α

First Declension Nouns

N

τέχνη

χώρᾱ

θάλαττα

πεῖρα

στρατιώτης

νεανίᾱς

G

τέχνης

χώρᾱς

θαλάττης

πείρᾱς

στρατιώτου

νεανιου

D

τέχνῃ

χώρᾱͅ

θαλάττῃ

πείρᾱͅ

στρατιώτῃ

νεανίᾱͅ

A

τέχνην

χώρᾱν

θάλατταν

πεῖραν

στρατιώτην

νεανίᾱν

V

τέχνη

χώρᾱ

θάλαττα

πεῖρα

στρατιῶτα

νεανίᾱ

N

τέχναι

χῶραι

θάλατται

πεῖραι

στρατιῶται

νεανίαι

G

τεχνῶν

χωρῶν

θαλαττῶν

πειρῶν

στρατιωτῶν

νεανιῶν

D

τέχναις

χώραις

θαλάτταις

πείραις

στρατιώταις

νεανίαις

A

τέχνᾱς

χώρᾱς

θαλάττᾱς

πείρᾱς

στρατιώτᾱς

νεανίᾱς

V

τέχναι

χῶραι

θάλατται

πεῖραι

στρατιῶται

νεανίαι

2nd Declension Nouns

Third Declension Nouns

N

λόγος

δῶρον

φύλαξ

αἴξ

ἐλπίς

χάρις

σῶμα

G

λόγου

δώρου

φύλακος

αἰγός

ἐλπίδος

χάριτος

σώματος

D

λόγῳ

δώρῳ

φύλακι

αἰγί

ἐλπίδι

χάριτι

σώματι

A

λόγον

δῶρον

φύλακα

αἶγα

ἐλπίδα

χάριν

σῶμα

V

λόγε

δῶρον

φύλαξ

αἴξ

ἐλπί

χάρι

σῶμα

N

λόγοι

δῶρα

φύλακες

αἶγες

ἐλπίδες

χάριτες

σώματα

G

λόγων

δώρων

φυλάκων

αἰγῶν

ἐλπίδων

χαρίτων

σωμάτων

D

λόγοις

δώροις

φύλαξι(ν)

αἰξί(ν)

ἐλπίσι(ν)

χάρισι(ν)

σώμασι(ν)

A

λόγους

δῶρα

φύλακας

αἶγας

ἐλπίδας

χάριτας

σώματα

V

λόγοι

δῶρα

φύλακες

αἶγες

ἐλπίδες

χάριτες

σώματα

1) Subtype 1 Nouns with Stem Ending in ρ- or ερ-:

Feminine

S

Pl

N

μήτηρ

μητέρες

G

μητρός

μητέρωv

D

μητρί

μητράσι (v)

A

μητέρα

μητέρας

V

μῆτερ

μητέρες

Masculine

S

Pl

N

vήρ

vδρες

G

vδρός

vδρv

D

vδρί

vδράσι (v)

A

vδρα

vδρας

V

vερ

vδρες

2) Subtype 2 Nouns with Stem Ending in σ- (ablaut, contraction, and disappearance of intervocalic sigma, -σ-):

Neuter Nouns Ending in –ος: γένος race

S

Pl

N

γένος

γένεα, γένη (εσα)

G

γένεος, γένους (εσος)

γενέων, γενῶν (εσων)

D

γένει (εσι)

γένεσι (ν) (εσσι (ν))

A

γένος

γένεα, γένη (εσα)

V

γένος

γένεα, γένη (εσα)

Neuter Nouns Ending in –ας: γῆρας, old age

S

Pl

N

γῆρας

γήραα, γήρ (ασα)

G

γήραος, γήρως (ασος)

γηράων, γηρῶν (ασων)

D

γήραϊ, γήρ (ασι)

γήρασι (ν) (ασσι (ν))

A

γῆρας

γήραα, γήρ (ασα)

V

γῆρας

γήραα, γήρ (ασα)

Feminine and Masculine Nouns Ending in ης-: τριήρης trireme

S

Pl

N

τριήρης

τριήρεες, τριήρεις (εσες)

G

τριήρεος, τριήρους (εσος)

τριηρέων, τριήρων (εσων)

D

τριήρει (εσι)

τριήρεσι (ν) (εσσιν)

A

τριήρεα, τριήρη (εσα)

τριήρεας, τριήρεις (εσας)

V

τριῆρες

τριήρεες, τριήρεις (εσες)

Proper Nouns Ending in ης-: Σωκράτης Sokrates

S

Pl

N

Σωκράτης

Σωκράτεες, Σωκράτεις (εσες)

G

Σωκράτεος, Σωκράτους (εσος)

Σωκράτέων, Σωκράτων (εσων)

D

Σωκράτει (εσι)

Σωκράτεσι (ν) (εσσιν)

A

Σωκράτεα, Σωκράτη,, Σωκράτην (εσα)

Σωκράτεας, Σωκράτεις (εσας)

V

Σωκράτες

Σωκράτεες, Σωκράτεις (εσες)

Subtype 3 Nouns with Stem Ending in ι-:

Feminine

S

Pl

N

πόλις

πόλιες, πόληες,, πόλεις (εϝες)

G

πόλιος, πόληoς,, πόλεως

πόλιωv, πόλεων (εϝων)

D

πόλιι, πόλι, πόληι, πόλει (εϝι)

πολίεσσι (v), πόλεσι (ν), πόλισι (ν)

A

πόλιv

πόλιας, πόληας, πόλῑς,, πόλεις

V

πόλι

πόλιες, πόληες,, πόλεις (εϝες)

Subtype 4 Nouns with Stem Ending in ηυ- or ηϝ-:

Masculine

S

Pl

N

βασιλεύς (ηυς)

βασιλῆες, βασιλῆς, βασιλεῖς (ηϝες)

G

βασιλῆος, βασιλέως (ηϝος)

βασιλήων, βασιλέωv (ηϝων)

D

βασιλῆι, βασιλεῖ (ηϝι)

βασιλεῦσι (v) (ηυσι (ν))

A

βασιλῆα, βασιλέα (ηϝα)

βασιλῆας, βασιλέᾱς later βασιλεῖς (ηϝας)

V

βασιλεῦ (ηυ)

βασιλῆες, βασιλῆς or βασιλεῖς

Relative Pronoun

S

N

ὅς

G

οὗ

ἧς

οὗ

D

A

ἥν

Pl

N

οἵ

αἵ

G

ὧν

ὧν

ὧν

D

οἷς

αἷς

οἷς

A

οὕς

ἅς

1st Person Pronoun

S

Pl

N

ἐγώ

ἡμεῖς

G

ἐμοῦ, μου

ἡμῶν

D

ἐμοί, μοι

ἡμῖν

A

ἐμέ, με

ἡμᾶς

2nd Person Pronoun

S

Pl

N

σύ

ὑμεῖς

G

σο, σου

ὑμῶν

D

σοί, σοι

ὑμῖν

A

σέ, σε

ὑμᾶς

3rd Person Pronoun

S

M/F Pl

N Pl

Ν

---

σφεῖς

σφέα, σφεα

G

οὗ, οὑ

σφέων, σφεων

σφέων, σφεων

D

οἷ, οἱ

σφίσιν, σφισιν

σφίσιν, σφισιν

A

,

σφέας, σφεας

σφέα, σφεα

Adjectives and Pronouns, Mixed Declension

Ν

εἷς

μία

ἕν

οὐδείς

οὐδεμία

οὐδέν

μηδείς

μηδεμία

μηδέν

G

ἑνός

μιᾶς

ἑνός

οὐδενός

οὐδεμιᾶς

οὐδενός

μηδενός

μηδεμιᾶς

μηδενός

D

ἑνί

μιᾷ

ἑνί

οὐδενί

οὐδεμιᾷ

οὐδενί

μηδενί

μηδεμιᾷ

μηδενί

A

ἕνα

μίαν

ἕνα

οὐδένα

οὐδεμίαν

οὐδέν

μηδένα

μηδεμίαν

μηδέν

Adjectives and Pronouns

N

αὐτός

αὐτή

αὐτό

οὗτος

αὕτη

τοῦτο

ὅδε

ἥδε

τόδε

G

αὐτοῦ

αὐτῆς

αὐτοῦ

τούτου

ταύτης

τούτου

τοῦδε

τῆσδε

τοῦδε

D

αὐτῷ

αὐτῇ

αὐτῷ

τούτῳ

ταύτῃ

τούτῳ

τῷδε

τῇδε

τῷδε

A

αὐτόν

αὐτήν

αὐτό

τοῦτον

ταύτην

τοῦτο

τόνδε

τήνδε

τόδε

N

αὐτοί

αὐταί

αὐτά

οὗτοι

αὗται

ταῦτα

οἵδε

αἵδε

τάδε

G

αὐτῶν

αὐτῶν

αὐτῶν

τούτων

τούτων

τούτων

τῶνδε

τῶνδε

τῶνδε

D

αὐτοῖς

αὐταῖς

αὐτοῖς

τούτοις

ταύταις

τούτοις

τοῖσδε

ταῖσδε

τοῖσδε

A

αὐτούς

αὐτάς

αὐτά

τούτους

ταύτας

ταῦτα

τούσδε

τάσδε

τάδε

N

ἐκεῖνος

ἐκείνη

ἐκεῖνο

τίς

τί

τις

τι

G

ἐκείνου

ἐκείνης

ἐκείνου

τίνος, τοῦ

τίνος, τοῦ

τινός, του

τινός, του

D

ἐκείνῳ

ἐκείνῃ

ἐκείνῳ

τίνι, τῷ

τίνι, τῷ

τινί, τῳ

τινί, τῳ

A

ἐκεῖνον

ἐκείνην

ἐκεῖνο

τίνα

τί

τινά

τι

N

ἐκεῖνοι

ἐκεῖναι

ἐκεῖνα

τίνες

τίνα

τινές

τινά

G

ἐκείνων

ἐκείνων

ἐκείνων

τίνων

τίνων

τινῶν

τινῶν

D

ἐκείνοις

ἐκείναις

ἐκείνοις

τίσι(ν)

τίσι(ν)

τισί(ν)

τισί(ν)

A

ἐκείνους

ἐκείνας

ἐκεῖνα

τίνας

τίνα

τινάς

τινά

The Indefinite Adjective and Pronoun

The Definitive Article

N

ὅστις

ἥτι

ὅτι

τό

G

οὗτινος, του

ἧστινος

οὗτινος, ὅτου

τοῦ

τῆς

το

D

ᾧτινι, ὅτῳ

ᾗτινι

ὧτινι, ὅτῳ

τῷ

τῇ

τῷ

A

ὅντινα

ἥντινα

ὅτι

τόν

τήν

τό

N

οἵτινες

αἵτινες

ἅτινα

οἱ

αἱ

τά

G

ὧντινων, των

ὧντινων

ὧντινων, ὅτων

τῶν

τῶν

τῶν

D

οἷστισι (ν), ὅτοις

αἷστισι (ν)

οἷστισι(ν), ὅτοις

τοῖς

ταῖς

τοῖς

A

οὕστινας

ἅστινας

ἅτινα

τούς

τάς

τά

Three Termination Adjectives

N

χαλεπός

χαλεπή

χαλεπόν

ἄξιος

ἀξίᾱ

ἄξιον

G

χαλεποῦ

χαλεπῆς

χαλεποῦ

ἀξίου

ἀξίᾱς

ἀξίου

D

χαλεπῷ

χαλεπῇ

χαλεπῷ

ἀξίῳ

ἀξίᾱͅ

ἀξίῳ

A

χαλεπόν

χαλεπήν

χαλεπόν

ἄξιον

ἀξίᾱν

ἄξιον

V

χαλεπέ

χαλεπή

χαλεπόν

ἄξιε

ἀξίᾱ

ἄξιον

N

χαλεποί

χαλεπαί

χαλεπά

ἄξιοι

ἄξιαι

ἄξια

G

χαλεπῶν

χαλεπῶν

χαλεπῶν

ἀξίων

ἀξίων

ἀξίων

D

χαλεποῖς

χαλεπαῖς

χαλεποῖς

ἀξίοις

ἀξίαις

ἀξίοις

A

χαλεπούς

χαλεπάς

χαλεπά

ἀξίους

ἀξίᾱς

ἄξια

V

χαλεποί

χαλεπαί

χαλεπά

ἄξιοι

ἄξιαι

ἄξια

Two Termination Adjectives

N

ἄδικος

ἄδικον

G

ἀδίκου

ἀδίκου

D

ἀδίκῳ

ἀδίκῳ

A

ἄδικον

ἄδικον

V

ἄδικε

ἄδικον

N

ἄδικοι

ἄδικα

G

ἀδίκων

ἀδίκων

D

ἀδίκοις

ἀδίκοις

A

ἀδίκους

ἄδικα

V

ἄδικοι

ἄδικα

Mixed Declension Adjectives

N

πᾶς

πᾶσα

πᾶν

μέγας

μεγάλη

μέγα

G

παντός

πάσης

παντός

μεγάλου

μεγάλης

μεγάλου

D

παντί

πάσῃ

παντί

μεγάλῳ

μεγάλῃ

μεγάλῳ

A

πάντα

πᾶσαν

πᾶν

μέγαν

μεγάλην

μέγα

N

πάντες

πᾶσαι

πάντα

μεγάλοι

μεγάλαι

μεγάλα

G

πάντων

πασῶν

πάντων

μεγάλων

μεγάλων

μεγάλων

D

πᾶσι (ν)

πάσαις

πᾶσι (ν)

μεγάλοις

μεγάλοις

μεγάλοις

A

πάντας

πάσᾱς

πάντα

μεγάλους

μεγάλᾱς

μεγάλα

N

πολύς

πολλή

πολύ

G

πολλοῦ

πολλῆς

πολλοῦ

D

πολλῷ

πολλῇ

πολλῷ

A

πολύν

πολλήν

πολύ

N

πολλοί

πολλαί

πολλά

G

πολλῶν

πολλῶν

πολλῶν

D

πολλοῖς

πολλαῖς

πολλοῖς

A

πολλούς

πολλάς

πολλά

Mixed Declension Adjective

Μ

F

N

N

ἡδύς

ἡδεῖα

ἡδύ

G

ἡδέος

ἡδείᾱς

ἡδέος

D

ἡδεῖ

ἡδείᾱͅ

ἡδεῖ

A

ἡδύν

ἡδεῖαν

ἡδύ

V

ἡδύ

ἡδεῖα

ἡδύ

Third Declension Adjective

M/F

N

N

ἀληθής

ἀληθές

G

ἀληθέος, ἀληθοῦς

ἀληθέος, ἀληθοῦς

D

ἀληθεῖ

ἀληθεῖ

A

ἀληθέα, ἀληθῆ

ἀληθές

V

ἀληθές

ἀσφαλές

N

ἡδεῖς

ἡδεῖαι

ἡδέα

G

ἡδέων

ἡδειῶν

ἡδέων

D

ἡδέσι (ν)

ἡδείαις

ἡδέσι (ν)

A

ἡδεῖς

ἡδείᾱς

ἡδέα

V

ἡδεῖς

ἡδεῖαι

ἡδέα

N

ἀληθέες, ἀληθεῖς

ἀληθέα, ἀληθῆ

G

ἀληθέων, ἀληθῶν

ἀληθέων, ἀληθῶν

D

ἀληθέσι (ν)

ἀληθέσι (ν)

A

ἀληθεῖς

ἀληθέα, ἀληθῆ

V

ἀληθέες, ἀληθεῖς

ἀληθέα, ἀληθῆ

Appendix V: The ω-Verb

Indicative Αctive

Present

Imperfect

Future

1st Aorist

2nd Aorist

1st

ω

ον

ω

α

ον

2nd

εις

ες

εις

ας

ες

3rd

ει

ε (ν)

ει

ε (ν)

ε (ν)

1st

ομεν

ομεν

ομεν

αμεν

ομεν

2nd

ετε

ετε

ετε

ατε

ετε

3rd

ουσι (ν)

ον

ουσι (ν)

αν

ον

Indicative Middle and Passive

Present

Future

1st

ομαι

ομαι

2nd

ει,

ει,

3rd

εται

εται

1st

ομεθα

ομεθα

2nd

εσθε

εσθε

3rd

ονται

ονται

Infinitive Αctive

Present

Imperfect

Future

1st Aorist

2nd Aorist

ειν

------

ειν

αι

εῖν

Infinitive Middle

Present

Imperfect

Future

1st Aorist

2nd Aorist

εσθαι

------

εσθαι

ασθαι

έσθαι

Infinitive Passive

Present

Imperfect

Future

1st Aorist

2nd Aorist

εσθαι

------

εσθαι

ῆναι

ῆναι

Appendix VI: εἰμί, εἶμι, and οἶδα

εἰμί

Present Indicative Active

Imperfect Indicative Active

1st

εἰμί

ἦν,

2nd

εἶ, εἶς

ἦσθα

3rd

ἐστί (ν)

ν

1st

ἐσμέν

ἦμεν

2nd

ἐστέ

ἦτε

3rd

εἰσί (ν)

ἦσαν

Ιnfinitive: εἶναι

εἶμι

Present Indicative Active

Imperfect Indicative Active

1st

εἶμι

ᾖα, ᾔειν

2nd

εἶ

ᾔεις, ᾔεισθα

3rd

εἶσι (ν)

ᾔει, ειν

1st

ἴμεν

ᾖμεν

2nd

ἴτε

ᾖτε

3rd

ἴᾱσι (ν)

ᾖσαν, ᾖεσαν

Present Infinitive Active: ἰέναι

Present Participles of εἰμί and εἶμι:

εἰμί being

M

F

N

M

F

N

N/V

ὤν

οὖσα

ὄν

ὄντες

οὖσαι

ὄντα

A

ὄντα

οὖσαν

ν

ὄντας

οὔσᾱς

ὄντα

G

ὄντος

οὔσης

ντος

ὄντων

οὐσῶν

ὄντων

D

ὄντι

οὔσῃ

ὄντι

οὖσι (ν)

οὔσαις

οὖσι (ν)

εἶμι coming, going

M

F

N

M

F

N

N/V

ἰών

οῦσα

ἰόν

ἰόντες

ἰοῦσαι

ἰόντα

A

ἰόντα

οῦσαν

ἰόν

ἰόντας

ἰούσᾱς

ἰόντα

G

ἰόντος

ἰούσης

ἰόντος

ἰόντων

ἰουσῶν

ἰόντων

D

ἰόντι

ἰούσῃ

ἰόντι

ἰοῦσι (ν)

ἰούσαις

ἰοῦσι (ν)

εἰμί being

M

F

N

M

F

N

N/V

ὤν

οὖσα

ὄν

ὄντες

οὖσαι

ὄντα

G

ὄντος

οὔσης

ὄντος

ὄντων

οὐσῶν

ὄντων

D

ὄντι

οὔσῃ

ὄντι

οὖσι (ν)

οὔσαις

οὖσι (ν)

A

ὄντα

οὖσαν

ὄν

ὄντας

οὔσᾱς

ὄντα

εἶμι coming, going

M

F

N

M

F

N

N/V

ἰών

ἰοῦσα

ἰόν

ἰόντες

ἰοῦσαι

ἰόντα

G

ἰόντος

ἰούσης

ἰόντος

ἰόντων

ἰουσῶν

ἰόντων

D

ἰόντι

ἰούσῃ

ἰόντι

ἰοῦσι (ν)

ἰούσαις

ἰοῦσι (ν)

A

ἰόντα

ἰοῦσαν

ἰόν

ἰόντας

ούσᾱς

ἰόντα

οἶδα

Perfect Indicative Active (with present meanings)

1st

οἶδα

2nd

οἶσθα, οἶδας

3rd

οἶδε (ν)

1st

ἴσμεν or οἴδαμεν

2nd

ἴστε, οἴδατε

3rd

ἴσᾱσι (ν)

Perfect Infinitive Active (with present meanings)

εἰδέναι

Appendix VII: Additional μι-Verbs ἀπόλλῡμι, δείκνῡμι, δίδωμι, δύναμαι, ἵημι, ἵστημι, κεῖμαι, τίθημι, φημί

ἀπόλλῡμι

Present Indicative Active

Ιmperfect Indicative Active

1st

ἀπόλλῡμι

ἀπώλλῡν

2nd

ἀπόλλῡς

ἀπώλλῡς

3rd

ἀπόλλῡ (ν)

ἀπώλλῡ

1st

ἀπόλλυμεν

ἀπώλλυμεν

2nd

ἀπόλλυτε

ἀπώλλυτε

3rd

ἀπολλύᾱσι (ν)

ἀπώλλυσαν

Present Infinitive Active

ἀπολλύναι

Pres. Indicative Middle and Passive

Ιmperfect Ind. Middle and Passive

1st

ἀπόλλυμαι

ἀπωλλύμην

2nd

ἀπόλλυσαι

ἀπώλλυσο

3rd

ἀπόλλυται

ἀπώλλυτο

1st

ἀπολλύμεθα

ἀπωλλύμεθα

2nd

ἀπόλλυσθε

ἀπώλλυσθε

3rd

ἀπόλλυνται

ἀπώλλυντο

Future Indicative Active, Middle, and Passive

Same as ω-verbs

Aorist Indicative Active, Middle, and Passive

Same as ω-verbs

δείκνῡμι

Present Indicative Active

Ιmperfect Indicative Active

1st

δείκνῡμι

ἐδείκνῡν

2nd

δείκνῡς

ἐδείκνῡς

3rd

δείκνῡ (ν)

ἐδείκνῡ

1st

δείκνυμεν

ἐδείκνυμεν

2nd

δείκνυτε

ἐδείκνυτε

3rd

δεικνύᾱσι (ν)

ἐδείκνυσαν

Present Infinitive Active

δεικνύναι

Pres. Indicative Middle and Passive

Ιmperfect Ind. Middle and Passive

1st

δείκνυμαι

ἐδεικνύμην

2nd

δείκνυσαι

ἐδείκνυσο

3rd

δείκνυται

ἐδείκνυτο

1st

δεικνύμεθα

ἐδεικνύμεθα

2nd

δείκνυσθε

ἐδείκνυσθε

3rd

δείκνυνται

ἐδείκνυντο

Future Indicative Active, Middle, and Passive

Same as ω-verbs

Aorist Indicative Active, Middle and Passive

Same as ω-verbs

δίδωμι

Present Indicative Active

Ιmperfect Indicative Active

1st

δίδωμι

ἐδίδουν

2nd

δίδως

ἐδίδους

3rd

δίδωσι (ν)

ἐδίδου

1st

δίδομεν

ἐδίδομεν

2nd

δίδοτε

ἐδίδοτε

3rd

διδόᾱσι (ν)

ἐδίδοσαν

Present Infinitive Active

διδόναι

Pres. Indicative Middle and Passive

Ιmperf. Ind. Middle and Passive

1st

δίδομαι

ἐδιδόμην

2nd

δίδοσαι

ἐδίδοσο

3rd

δίδοται

ἐδίδοτο

1st

διδόμεθα

ἐδιδόμεθα

2nd

δίδοσθε

ἐδίδοσθε

3rd

δίδονται

ἐδίδοντο

Present Infinitive Middle and Passive of δίδωμι

δίδοσθαι

Future Indicative Active, Middle, and Passive

Same as ω-verbs

Aorist Indicative Active

Aorist Indicative Middle

1st

ἔδωκα

ἐδόμην

2nd

ἔδωκας

ἔδου (οσο)

3rd

ἔδωκε (ν)

ἔδοτο

1st

ἔδομεν

ἐδόμεθα

2nd

ἔδοτε

ἔδοσθε

3rd

ἔδοσαν

ἔδοντο

Aorist Indicative Passive

Same as ω-verbs

Aorist Infinitive Active

δοῦναι

Aorist Infinitive Middle

δόσθαι

Aorist Infinitive Passive

Same as ω-verbs

δύναμαι

Pres. Indicative Middle and Passive

Ιmperf. Ind. Middle and Passive

1st

δύναμαι

ἐδυνάμην

2nd

δύνασαι

ἐδύνω (ασο)

3rd

δύναται

ἐδύνατο

1st

δυνάμεθα

ἐδυνάμεθα

2nd

δύνασθε

ἐδύνασθε

3rd

δύνανται

ἐδύναντο

Present Infinitive Middle and Passive

δύνασθαι

Future Indicative Middle

Same as ω-verbs

Aorist Indicative Passive

Same as ω-verbs

ἵημι

Present Indicative Active

Ιmperfect Indicative Active

1st

ἵημι

ἵην ()

2nd

ἵης, ἱεῖς

ἵεις

3rd

ἵησι (ν)

ἵει

1st

ἵεμεν

ἵεμεν

2nd

ἵετε

ἵετε

3rd

ἱέᾱσι (ν), ἱᾶσι (ν)

ἵεσαν

Present Infinitive Active

ἱέναι

Pres. Indicative Middle and Passive

Ιmperf. Ind. Middle and Passive

1st

ἵεμαι

ἱέμην ()

2nd

ἵεσαι

ἵεσο

3rd

ἵεται

ἵετο

1st

ἱέμεθα

ἱέμεθα

2nd

ἵεσθε

ἵεσθε

3rd

ἵενται

ἵεντο

Present Infinitive Middle and Passive

ἵεσθαι

Future Indicative Active, Middle, and Passive

Same as ω-verbs

Aorist Indicative Active

Aorist Indicative Middle

1st

-ἧκα

-εἵμην

2nd

-ἧκας

-εἷσο

3rd

-ἧκε (ν)

-εἷτο

1st

-εἷμεν

-εἵμεθα

2nd

-εἷτε

-εἷσθε

3rd

-εἷσαν

-εἷντο

Aorist Indicative Passive

Same as ω-verbs

Aorist Infinitive Active

-εἷναι

Aorist Infinitive Middle

-ἕσθαι

Aorist Infinitive Passive

Same as ω-verbs

ἵστημι

Present Indicative Active

Ιmperfect Indicative Active

1st

ἵστημι

ἵστην ()

2nd

ἵστης

ἵστης

3rd

ἵστησι (ν)

ἵστη

1st

ἵσταμεν

ἵσταμεν

2nd

ἵστατε

ἵστατε

3rd

ἱστάᾱσι (ν) or ἱστᾶσι (ν)

ἵστασαν

Present Infinitive Active

ἱστάναι

Pres. Indicative Middle and Passive

Ιmperf. Ind. Middle and Passive

1st

ἵσταμαι

ἱστάμην ()

2nd

ἵστασαι

ἵστασο

3rd

ἵσταται

ἵστατο

1st

ἱστάμεθα

ἱστάμεθα

2nd

ἵστασθε

ἵστασθε

3rd

ἵστανται

ἵσταντο

Present Infinitive Middle and Passive

ἵστασθαι

Future Indicative Active, Middle, and Passive

Same as ω-verbs

Aorist Indicative Active

Aorist Indicative Middle

1st

ἔστην

None

2nd

ἔστης

3rd

ἔστη

1st

ἔστημεν

2nd

ἔστητε

3rd

ἔστησαν

Aorist Indicative Passive

None

Aorist Infinitive Active

στῆναι

Aorist Infinitive Middle

None

Aorist Infinitive Passive

None

κεῖμαι

Present Indicative Middle and Passive

Ιmp. Ind. Middle and Passive

1st

κεῖμαι

ἐκείμην

2nd

κεῖσαι

ἔκεισο

3rd

κεῖται

ἔκειτο

1st

κείμεθα

ἐκείμεθα

2nd

κεῖσθε

ἔκεισθε

3rd

κεῖνται

ἔκειντο

Present Infinitive Middle and Passive

κεῖσθαι

Future Indicative Middle

Same as ω-verbs

τίθημι

Present Indicative Active

Ιmperfect Indicative Active

1st

τίθημι

ἐτίθην

2nd

τίθης

ἐτίθεις

3rd

τίθησι (ν)

ἐτίθει

1st

τίθεμεν

ἐτίθεμεν

2nd

τίθετε

ἐτίθετε

3rd

τιθέᾱσι (ν)

ἐτίθεσαν

Present Infinitive Active

τιθέναι

Pres. Indicative Middle and Passive

Ιmperf. Ind. Middle and Passive

1st

τίθεμαι

ἐτιθέμην

2nd

τίθεσαι

ἐτίθεσο

3rd

τίθεται

ἐτίθετο

1st

τιθέμεθα

ἐτιθέμεθα

2nd

τίθεσθε

ἐτίθεσθε

3rd

τίθενται

ἐτίθεντο

Present Infinitive Middle and Passive

τίθεσθαι

Future Indicative Active, Middle, and Passive

Same as ω-verbs

Aorist Indicative Active

Aorist Indicative Middle

1st

ἔθηκα

ἐθέμην

2nd

ἔθηκας

ἔθου (εσο)

3rd

ἔθηκε (ν)

ἔθετο

1st

ἔθεμεν

ἐθέμεθα

2nd

ἔθετε

ἔθεσθε

3rd

ἔθεσαν

ἔθεντο

Aorist Indicative Passive

Same as ω-verbs

Aorist Infinitive Active

θεῖναι

Aorist Infinitive Middle

θέσθαι

Aorist Infinitive Passive

Same as ω-verbs

φημί

Present Indicative Active

Ιmperfect Indicative Active

1st

φημί

ἔφην

2nd

φής, φῄς, φῇσθα

ἔφης, ἔφησθα

3rd

φησί (ν)

ἔφη

1st

φαμέν

ἔφαμεν

2nd

φατέ

ἔφατε

3rd

φᾱσί (ν)

ἔφασαν

Present Infinitive Active

φάναι

Appendix VIII: Adjective, Adverb, Noun, Pronoun Chart

Appendix IX: Verb Chart

Appendix X: Accents

Possibilities for Accent. Carefully read the possibilities and restrictions for each of the three accents. Note where in a Greek word the acute, grave, and circumflex occur. These possibilities account for all accentuation options in all words.

ACUTE ACCENT:

Possibilities: appears over the antepenult, penult, and ultima;

appears over short vowels or long vowels or diphthongs.

Restrictions: CAN appear over the ultima ONLY when a pause follows, i.e., at the end of a sentence or before a comma or semicolon.

CANNOT appear over the penult when it is accented and contains a long vowel or diphthong and the ultima contains a short vowel.

CAN appear over the antepenult ONLY when the ultima contains a short vowel.

GRAVE ACCENT:

Possibilities: appears ONLY over the ultima;

appears over short vowels or long vowels or diphthongs.

Restrictions: MUST replace an acute accent over the ultima when another word follows directly without a pause.

CANNOT appear otherwise.

CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT:

Possibilities: appears ONLY over the penult and ultima;

appears ONLY over long vowels or diphthongs.

Restrictions: MUST appear over the penult when the penult is accented and contains a long vowel or diphthong AND the ultima contains a short vowel.

CANNOT appear over the penult when the ultima contains a long vowel or diphthong.

Since the circumflex accent () only occurs over long vowels or diphthongs, there is no need to include it when alpha, iota, or upsilon have circumflex accents over them as in δρᾶμα.

Chart for Possibilities of Accent. The chart is a schematic of where all accents may occur in all Greek words. Commit this chart to memory. Memorization initiates the process of understanding. As your understanding increases, your ability to remember the chart and to accent correctly improves.

Key

a

=

antepenult

pe

=

penult

u

=

ultima

˘

=

a short vowel

¯

=

a long vowel or diphthong

Unmarked

=

short vowel, long vowel, or diphthong

Acute

Grave

Circumflex

Antepenult

Possible if ultima is short: á-pe-ŭ

Never

Never

Penult

Possible but not if penult is long and ultima is short: a-pé-u

Never

Possible if penult is long and ultima is short: a-pê-ŭ

Ultima

Possible if pause follows: a-pe-ú + pause between words

Possible if no pause follows: a-pe-ù + no pause between words

Possible: a-pe-ũ

Accent Possibilites Explained:

1.

-a-pe-ú + pause

(You may have an acute on the ultima when a pause (period, comma) follows the word.)

2.

-a-pe-ù + word without pause

(You may have a grave on the ultima when there is no pause.)

3.

-a-pé-u BUT NOT a-pé-ŭ, when the penult is long (pē) and the ultima is short (ŭ)

(You may have an acute on the penult EXCEPT with a long penult and a short ultima.)

4.

-á-pe-ŭ

(You may have an acute on the antepenult IF the ultima is short.)

5.

-a-pe-ũ Note that the upsilon is long

(You may have a circumflex over a long ultima.)

6.

-a-pê-ŭ MUST, if ē is accented BUT never a circumflex on the penult (pê) if the ultima is long (ū)

(You may have a circumflex on the penult if it is accented and long AND the ultima is short.)

Recessive and Persistent Accent. Almost all forms of the Greek verb have recessive accent. Nouns and other parts of speech have persistent accent.

Recessive Accent

In recessive accent, the accent occurs as far from the ultima as the possibilities of accent allow. Most verb forms have recessive accent.

Practical Application of the Chart for Possibilities of Accent in Recessive Accent. Read from top to bottom and apply the first line that meets the criteria:

(1)

Verbs of three or more syllables:

If the ultima is short, put an acute on the antepenult. Stop!

ἔπαυε

If the ultima is long, put an acute on the penult. Stop!

παυσάτω

(2)

Verbs of two syllables:

If the penult is long AND the ultima is short, put a circumflex on the penult. Stop! (A helpful acronym is PLUS: Penult Long; Ultima Short.)

παῦε

In all other cases (there are three) put an acute on the penult. Stop!

a. short penult, short ultima

βάλε

b. short penult, long ultima

βάλω

c. long penult, long ultima

παύει

Practice with Recessive Accent. Check your answers below.

  1. ἠρξαν, ἠρξατε, ἀρξῃς, ἀρξετε, ἀρξητε, ἀρξατω
  2. ἐβαλον, ἐβαλομεν, βαλω, βαλε, βαλε, ἐβαλετε
  3. ἐδυνατο, ἐδυναμεθα, ἐδυνασθε, ἐδυνω
  4. ἀγγελλεις, ἀγγελλετε, ἠγγειλα, ἠγγελθην, γγειλατε
  5. ἐδεξετο, ἐδεχομεθα, ἐδεχου, ἐδεχεσθε
  6. ἐκρῑνα, ἐκρῑνατε, κρῑνε, κρῑνατε, κρῑνον, κρῑνω
  7. γιγνομεθα, ἐγιγνετο, γιγνεσθω, ἐγιγνοντο
  8. ἑλωσιν, ἑλῃς, εἱλον, εἱλετε
  9. ἐδοξα, ἐδοξατε, ἐδοξαμεν, δοξῃς, δοξητε
  10. ἠκουσα, ἠκουσας, ἠκουσαμεν, ἠκουσατε

Persistent Accent

When presented with any noun in a lexicon, the nominative case of the noun is given first, the genitive case of the noun, second, and the article, third:

Nominative Singular

Genitive Singular

Article

English Equivalent

αἷμα

αἵματος

τό

blood

Persistent accent remains the same accent (acute, grave, circumflex), over the vowel or diphthong it is on, as given by the nominative singular in all forms of the word, unless forced by the rules for possibilities of accent to change in nature (acute, circumflex, grave) or position (antepenult, penult, ultima). If an accent violates one of the possibilities (you cannot have a circumflex on the antepenult), the accent will change in nature (acute, grave, circumflex) before position (antepenult, penult, ultima). The accent of most noun forms is persistent and is learned as part of the vocabulary.

Practical Application of the Chart for Possibilities of Accent in Persistent Accent

Consider the following examples.

1.

ἄνθρωπος (nominative):

ἀνθρώπου, ἀνθρώπῳ

2.

βιβλίον (nominative):

βιβλίου, βιβλίῳ

3.

νῆσος (nominative):

νήσου, νήσῳ, νῆσον

4.

δρᾶμα (nominative):

δράματος, δρᾱμάτων

5.

ἀρετή (nominative):

ἀρετήν, ἀρετάς

Explanations.

  1. ἀνθρώπου, ἀνθρώπῳ: the ultima is long and so the acute accent must change in position from the antepenult to the penult, but not in nature.
  2. βιβλίου, βιβλίῳ: no violation of the possibilities and so no change.
  3. νήσου, νήσῳ: the penult and ultima are long and so the accent must change in nature from a circumflex to an acute, but need not change position. νῆσον: the penult is long and the ultima is short and so the accent remains a circumflex on the penult.
  4. δράματος: the accent remains over the syllable δρᾱ but must change in nature to an acute because the number of syllables changed from two to three and it is not possible to have a circumflex on the antepenult. δρᾱμάτων: the accent must change position because the ultima is long.
  5. ἀρετήν, ἀρετάς: there is no violation of the possibilities and so no change.

Use these examples and the Chart on Possibilities of Accent to help you complete the persistent accent practice.

Practice with Persistent Accent. The first word in bold gives the persistent accent. Accent the unbolded words. Answers follow.

  1. δίκη: δικης, δικην, δικαι
  2. ἡμέτερος: ἡμετερα, ἡμετερων
  3. ἀθάνατος: ἀθανατου, ἀθανατοις, ἀθανατον
  4. ζωγράφος: ζωγραφου, ζωγραφοι, ζωγραφων
  5. τράπεζα: τραπεζης, τραπεζῃ, τραπεζαν, τραπεζᾱς, τραπεζων, τραπεζαι
  6. νῆσος: νησῳ, νησον, νησους
  7. δοῦλος: δουλῳ, δουλον, δουλοις
  8. πρᾶγμα: πρᾱγματος, πρᾱγματων, πρᾱγμασι
  9. ἀγών: ἀγωνος, ἀγωνι, ἀγωνων, ἀγωσι
  10. αἴξ: αἰγας, αἰγες, αἰγα
  11. σώφρων: σωφρον, σωφρονα, σωφρονων

Additional Practice with Recessive Accent. Check your answers below.

  1. λῡω, λῡομεν, λῡετε, λῡετω, λῡσον
  2. παιδευω, ἐπαιδευον, παιδευσεις, παιδευσον, ἐπαιδευσαν
  3. διδασκει, διδασκε, διδαξον, διδαξω
  4. ταττειν, ταττομεν, ταττοντων, ταττεις, ταττε
  5. βλαψεις, βλαψομεν, ἐβλαβην
  6. ἐπεισα, ἐπεισατε, πεισωμεν, ἐπεισθην
  7. δουλευεις, ἐδουλευον, ἐδουλευετε
  8. κλεπτω, κλεψεις, ἐκλεπτον, ἐκλεπτετε
  9. ἀγγελλω, ἀγγελλον, ἀγγελλετε
  10. ἠλθες, ἠλθον, ἠλθετε, ἠλθομεν, ἠλθε

Additional Practice with Persistent Accent. The first word in bold gives the persistent accent. Accent the unbolded words. Answers follow.

  1. Σωκράτης: Σωκρατους, Σωκρατει, Σωκρατη
  2. ἄγγελος: ἀγγελου, ἀγγελῳ, ἀγγελον, ἀγγελους
  3. φιλίᾱ: φιλιᾱν, φιλιᾱͅ, φιλιαις, φιλιᾱς, φιλιων
  4. φίλος: φιλου, φιλῳ, φιλοις, φιλους
  5. λῦμα: λῡματος, λῡματι, λῡματων, λῡματα
  6. πόλεμος: πολεμου, πολεμῳ, πολεμον, πολεμων, πολεμοις, πολεμοι
  7. ξένος: ξενου, ξενῳ, ξενον, ξενοις, ξενους
  8. ψεῦδος: ψευδους, ψευδει, ψευδεσι
  9. δῆμος: δημου, δημῳ, δημον, δημους
  10. βουλή: βουλης, βουλῃ, βουλην, βουλαι, βουλων, βουλαις, βουλᾱς

Answers to Recessive Accent Practice

  1. ἦρξαν, ἤρξατε, ἄρξῃς, ἄρξετε, ἄρξητε, ἀρξάτω
  2. ἔβαλον, ἐβάλομεν, βάλω, βάλε, ἔβαλε, ἐβάλετε
  3. ἐδύνατο, ἐδυνάμεθα, ἐδύνασθε, ἐδύνω
  4. ἀγγέλλεις, ἀγγέλλετε, ἤγγειλα, γγέλθην, ἠγγείλατε
  5. ἐδέξετο, ἐδεχόμεθα, δέχου, ἐδέχεσθε
  6. ἔκρῑνα, ἐκρίνατε, κρῖνε, κρίνατε, κρῖνον, κρίνω
  7. γιγνόμεθα, γίγνετο, γιγνέσθω, ἐγίγνοντο
  8. ἕλωσιν, ἕλῃς, εἷλον, εἵλετε
  9. ἔδοξα, ἐδόξατε, ἐδόξαμεν, δόξῃς, δόξητε
  10. ἤκουσα, ἤκουσας, ἠκούσαμεν, ἠκούσατε

Answers to Persistent Accent Practice

  1. δίκη: δίκης, δίκην, δίκαι
  2. ἡμέτερος: ἡμέτερα, ἡμετέρων
  3. ἀθάνατος: ἀθανάτου, ἀθανάτοις, ἀθάνατον
  4. ζωγράφος: ζωγράφου, ζωγράφοι, ζωγράφων
  5. τράπεζα: τραπέζης, τραπέζῃ, τράπεζαν, τραπέζᾱς, τραπεζῶν, τράπεζαι
  6. νῆσος: νήσῳ, νῆσον, νήσους
  7. δοῦλος: δούλῳ, δοῦλον, δούλοις
  8. πρᾶγμα: πράγματος, πρᾱγμάτων, πράγμασι
  9. ἀγών: ἀγῶνος, ἀγῶνι, ἀγώνων, ἀγῶσι
  10. αἴξ: αἶγας, αἶγες, αἶγα
  11. σώφρων: σῶφρον, σώφρονα, σωφρόνων

Answers to Additional Recessive Accent Practice

  1. λύω, λύομεν, λύετε, λυέτω, λῦσον
  2. παιδεύω, ἐπαίδευον, παιδεύσεις, παίδευσον, ἐπαίδευσαν
  3. διδάσκει, δίδασκε, δίδαξον, διδάξω
  4. τάττειν, τάττομεν, ταττόντων, τάττεις, τάττε
  5. βλάψεις, βλάψομεν, ἐβλάβην
  6. ἔπεισα, ἐπείσατε, πείσωμεν, ἐπείσθην
  7. δουλεύεις, ἐδούλευον, ἐδουλεύετε
  8. κλέπτω, κλέψεις, ἔκλεπτον, ἐκλέπτετε
  9. ἀγγέλλω, ἄγγελλον, ἀγγέλλετε
  10. ἦλθες, ἦλθον, ἤλθετε, ἤλθομεν, ἦλθε

Answers to Additional Persistent Accent Practice

  1. Σωκράτης: Σωκράτους, Σωκράτει, Σωκράτη
  2. ἄγγελος: γγέλου, ἀγγέλῳ, ἄγγελον, ἀγγέλους
  3. φιλία: φιλίαν, φιλίᾳ, φιλίαις, φιλίᾱς, φιλιῶν
  4. φίλος: φίλου, φίλῳ, φίλοις, φίλους
  5. λῦμα: λύματος, λύματι, λυμάτων, λύματα
  6. πόλεμος: πολέμου, πολέμῳ, πόλεμον, πολέμων, πολέμοις, πόλεμοι
  7. ξένος: ξένου, ξένῳ, ξένον, ξένοις, ξένους
  8. ψεῦδος: ψεύδους, ψεύδει, ψεύδεσι
  9. δῆμος: δήμου, δήμῳ, δῆμον, δήμους
  10. βουλῆς: βουλῇ, βουλήν, βουλαί, βουλῶν, βουλαῖς, βουλάς

Appendix XI: Herodotos’ Mixed Dialect

The text of Herodotos is a mixture of Ionic, Attic, and sometimes Doric forms. It is uncertain whether Herodotos’ text was originally purely Ionic and later corrupted by scribes to include Attic and Doric forms, or whether it was originally a mixture of the three. Whatever the case, the following indicates differences between the dialect of Herodotos and the Attic dialect.

  1. -η is found where Attic has -α, even after ε, ι, and ρ.
  2. -ει and -ου for -ε and -ο before ν, ρ, λ: ξεῖνοι for ξένοι; εἵνεκα for ἕνεκα; κούρη for κόρη; οὔνομα for ὄνομα.
  3. -ω for -αυ or -ου: θῶμα for θαῦμα; ὦν for οὖν.
  4. -σσ- is found where Attic has -ττ-.
  5. Consonants are often unaspirated, π, τ, κ for φ, θ, χ: ἀπῆκε instead of ἀφῆκε.
  6. κ- is found instead of π-: κοτε instead of ποτε and ὅκως instead of ὅπως.
  7. The first declension genitive plural is -έων not -ῶν.
  8. The first declension dative plural is -ῃσι not -αις.
  9. The first declension genitive singular of masculine nouns is -εω not -ου.
  10. The second declension dative plural is -οισι not -οις.
  11. In the third declension, forms remain uncontracted: γένεος not γένους.
  12. In the third declension, nouns that end in -ις decline like this:

    N

    πόλις

    πόλιες

    A

    πόλιν

    πόλιας or πόλῑς

    G

    πόλιος

    πόλιων

    D

    πόλι

    πόλισι (ν)

    V

    πόλι

    πόλιες

    N

    πόλις

    πόλιες

    G

    πόλιος

    πόλιων

    D

    πόλι

    πόλισι (ν)

    A

    πόλιν

    πόλιας or πόλῑς

    V

    πόλι

    πόλιες

  13. Personal pronouns are not contracted; for example, σέο or σεῦ not σοῦ.
  14. For the personal pronouns, τοι is found at times for σοι.
  15. For the third-person pronoun, ο is used for αὐτῷ and αὐτῇ.
  16. For the third-person regular and reflexive pronoun, μιν is found for αὐτόν, αὐτήν, αὐτό, and for ἑαυτόν and ἑαυτήν.
  17. For the third-person plural, σφεῖς, σφέων, σφίσι or σφι, and σφέας is found.
  18. For τίς, τί and τις, τι: τέο or τεῦ for τοῦ or τίνος; τέῳ for τῷ or τίνι; τέων for τίνων; τέοισι for τίσι.
  19. In cases other than the nominative, the article and the relative pronoun are identical. In specific instances Herodotus uses the customary Attic forms for the relative pronoun.
  20. The past indicative augment is inconsistently used.
  21. Instead of the third person plurals -νται and -ντο, Herodotus uses the third-person plurals -αται and -ατο.
  22. Many verb forms remain uncontracted: ποιέειν not ποιεῖν.
  23. Verbs ending in -οω, -οο- and -οου- contract to -ευ-.
  24. ἵημι conjugates like an -εω verb; ἵστημι like an -αω verb; and δίδωμι like an -οω verb.
  25. Commonly occurring pronouns are the following:

First Person

Second Person

Third Person

N

ἐγώ

σύ

A

ἐμέ, με

σέ, σε

, μιν (= αὐτόν, αὐτήν, αὐτό)

G

ἐμέο, ἐμεῦ, μευ

σέο, σεῦ, σευ

εὑ

D

ἐμοί, μοι

σοί, τοι

οἱ (= αὐτῷ and αὐτῇ)

N

ἡμεῖς

ὑμεῖς

σφεῖς

A

ἡμέας

ὑμέας

σφέας, σφεας, σφεα

G

ἡμέων

ὑμέων

σφέων, σφεων

D

ἡμῖν

μῖν

σφίσι (ν) σφισι (ν), σφι

First Person

Second Person

Third Person

N

ἐγώ

σύ

G

ἐμέο, ἐμεῦ, μευ

σέο, σεῦ, σευ

εὑ

D

ἐμοί, μοι

σοί, τοι

οἱ (= αὐτῷ and αὐτῇ)

A

ἐμέ, με

σέ, σε

, μιν (= αὐτόν, αὐτήν, αὐτό)

N

ἡμεῖς

ὑμεῖς

σφεῖς

G

ἡμέων

ὑμέων

σφέων, σφεων

D

ἡμῖν

ὑμῖν

σφίσι (ν) σφισι (ν), σφι

A

ἡμέας

ὑμέας

σφέας, σφεας, σφεα

Appendix XII: The Ionic-Attic Dialect

The Ionic and Attic dialects share the following features:

  • Original long alpha, -, becomes an eta, -η, in all positions, though in Attic long alpha, -, remains after an epsilon, ε, iota, ι, or rho, ρ.
  • In certain sequences of long and short vowel endings, quantitative metathesis has occurred, with long-short becoming short-long: -ηο becomes -εω. In the genitive case πόλ-ηος of the noun, πόλις (city), long eta and short omicron become short epsilon and long omega: πόλ-εως.
  • Digamma or nau ϝ, a w-sound, disappears in Ionic and in Attic with one exception. In Ionic when digamma or nau ϝ, disappears after lambda λ, nu ν, or rho ρ, a short vowel undergoes compensatory lengthening to a spurious diphthong, but in Attic the short vowel remains unchanged. For example, κόρϝος becomes κοῦρος (lad) in Ionic and κόρος in Attic. In Ionic, the omicron ο lengthens to the spurious diphthong, ου.
  • Ionic-Attic add an optional nu ν, called in this textbook nu-moveable, to certain endings when the word following begins with a vowel. The addition of the nu-moveable prevents hiatus between adjacent words, the pronunciation of one vowel directly after a preceding vowel. The Ionic-Attic phenomenon is identical to the English indefinite article, a. In instances where the English indefinite article, a, is followed by a word beginning with a vowel, English adds an n—an elephant stands upon a lookout’s tongue.
  • Ionic and Attic use the infinitive ending -ναι instead of -μεναι.
  • Ionic and Attic use the subordinating conjunction εἰ if not αἰ if.
  • Ionic and Attic use the adverb ἄν not κε. Note that ἄν is more typically referred to as a modal particle.

The Ionic and Attic dialects differ in these features:

  • Attic uses double tau, -ττ-, in instances where Ionic uses double sigma, -σσ-: Attic θάλαττα and Ionic θάλασσα sea.
  • Attic uses double rho, -ρρ-, in instances where Ionic uses rho followed by sigma, -ρσ-: Attic θαρρέω and Ionic θαρσέω I have no fear.

Appendix XIII: Sappho 31

φαίνεταί μοι κῆνος ἴσος θέοισιν

ἔμμεν᾽ ὤνηρ, ὄττις ἐνάντιός τοι

ἰσδάνει καὶ πλάσιον ἆδυ φωνεί-

σας ὐπακούει

καὶ γελαίσας ἰμέροεν, τό μ᾽ μὰν

καρδίαν ν στήθεσιν ἐπτόαισεν,

ὠς γὰρ ἔς σ᾽ ἴδω βρόχε᾽ ὤς με φώναι-

σ᾽ οὐδ᾽ ἒν ἔτ᾽ εἴκει,

ἀλλὰ κὰμ μὲν γλῶσσα <μ’> ἔαγε, λέπτον

δ᾽ αὔτικα χρῷ πῦρ παδεδρόμηκεν,

ὀππάτεσσι δ᾽ οὐδ᾽ ἒν ὄρημμ᾽, ἐπιρρόμ-

βεισι δ᾽ ἄκουαι,

έκαδε μ᾽ ἴδρως ψῦχρος κακχέεταιτρόμος δὲ

παῖσαν ἄγρει, χλωροτέρα δὲ ποίας

μμι, τεθνάκην δ᾽ ὀλίγω ᾽πιδεύης

φαίνομ᾽ ἔμ᾽ αὔτᾳ·

ἀλλὰ πὰν τόλματον ἐπεὶκαὶ πένητα

David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric: Sappho, Alcaeus (Cambridge, Mass.: Loeb Classical Library, 1990, pp. 78–80).

Note: χλωροτέρα is green like new, fresh, moist wood. (Not green as in envy.)

To me it seems that man has the fortune

of gods, whoever sits beside you

and close, who listens to you

sweetly speaking

and laughing temptingly. My heart

flutters in my breast whenever

I even glance at you—

I can say nothing,

my tongue is broken. A delicate fire

runs under my skin, my eyes

see nothing, my ears roar,

cold sweat

rushes down me, trembling seizes me,

I am greener than grass.

To myself I seem

needing but little to die.

Yet all can be endured/dared, since . . .

Diane J. Rayor, Sappho: A New Translation of the Complete Works (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014). Introduction by André Lardinois. Featured in Daniel Mendelsohn’s article:

http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/03/16/girl-interrupted?

http://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/hearing-sappho

Appendix XIV: Artists, Philosophers, Thinkers, Writers

Aiskhylos (Aeschylus) of Athens, Αἰσχύλος ὁ Ἀθηναῖος, c. 525–456 BCE. Aiskhylos wrote satyr plays and tragedies. He composed about ninety plays, of which seven survive. Many fragments from his other plays are found quoted by other later authors or on Egyptian papyrus scraps. Aristoteles writes that Aiskhylos expanded the number of characters in the theatre and allowed them to interact with each other instead of only with the chorus. One of his plays, Prometheus Bound, may have been written by his son, Euphorion. Another of his plays, The Persians, is the only extant tragedy concerning contemporary events that survives.

Anakreon of Teos, Ἀνακρέων ὁ Τήϊος, c. 582–c. 485 BCE. Alive during the tumultuous Archaic Age (700–480 BCE), Anakreon was born in Teos, a Greek city on the border of the Persian empire. In 545 the Persians attacked the Greek city-states lying on and off the coast of Asia Minor and Anakreon fought against the invaders, though, he says, he did nothing noteworthy in the battle.

Anaxagoras of Klazomenai, Ἀναξαγόρας, Κλαζομεναί, c. 500–428 BCE. Anaxagoras was a pre-Socratic philosopher and a good friend of the Athenian statesman Perikles. Anaxagoras spent much of his time in the cultural center of his day, Athens. He declared that the sun was a stone and not a god. The Athenians may have brought him to court and had him exiled on charges of impiety and pro-Persian sympathies. It is uncertain if the charges were real, political, or fabricated by later biographers.

Anaximandros of Miletos, Ἀναξίμανδρος ὁ Μιλήσιος, c. 610–546 BCE. Anaximandros was a pre-Socratic philosopher who put forth the theory that the infinite was the universe’s origin.

Anaximenes of Miletos, Ἀναξιμένης ὁ Μιλήσιος, c. 586–526 BCE. Anaximenes was a pre-Socratic philosopher who proposed air as the universe’s prime substance.

Anna Komnene of Byzantium, Ἄννα Κομνηνή, c. 1083–1150 CE. Daughter of the Byzantine emperor, Alexios I Komnenos, Anna Komnene was educated in Greek history and literature, mathematics, medicine, philosophy, and theology. After her father’s death, she and her mother attempted a coup against her brother John II Komnenos. It failed. In exile Anna wrote the Alexiad, a history of her father, written in Attic Greek.

Antiphon of Rhamnos, Ἀντιφῶν ὁ Ῥαμνούσιος, c. 480–411 BCE. Antiphon was an orator, engaged in fifth-century Athenian political and intellectual life.

Appian of Alexandria, Ἀππιανὸς ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς c. 95–165 CE. A Greek historian with Roman citizenship, Appian was born in Alexandria. He wrote the Roman History (Ρωμαϊκά) in twenty-four books, some complete and others in fragments.

Aristarkhos of Samos, Ἀρίσταρχος ὁ Σάμιος, c. 310–c. 230 BCE. Aristarkhos was an astronomer and a mathematician who placed the sun at the center of the universe in the first known heliocentric view of the universe.

Aristophanes of Athens, Ἀριστοφάνης ὁ Ἀθηναῖος, c. 446–c. 386 BCE. Aristophanes wrote comic plays. Of forty or so plays, eleven have survived and represent a genre of comic drama referred to as Old Comedy.

Aristoteles (Aristotle) of Stageira, Ἀριστοτέλης, Στάγειρα, c. 384–322 BCE. Aristoteles was a student of Plato and a philosopher. He founded the peripatetic school of philosophy and wrote on many subjects, including aesthetics, biology, economics, ethics, government, linguistics, logic, metaphysics, music, physics, poetry, politics, psychology, rhetoric, theater, and zoology. Aristoteles’ works continue to be read and studied.

Arkhilokhos of Paros, Ἀρχίλοχος Πάρου, c. 680–645 BCE. The son of Telesikles, an aristocrat, and a slave woman, Arkhilokhos was a mercenary soldier and poet from Paros, a chief center for the worship of Demeter. In association with Demeter and Dionysos there was a tradition of iambic poetry, ἴαμβοι, a genre of poetry marked first by invective and scurrility, scatology, and sex, and second by its iambic meter.

Athenaios of Naukratis, Ἀθήναιος ὁ Nαυκρατίτης, c. 190 CE. Athenaios was a Greek rhetorician and grammarian. His fifteen-volume Scholars at Dinner, Δειπνοσοφισταί, on the art of dining, mostly survives. Among other things, the work provides information about Greek literature, quoting from the works of about 700 Greek authors and 2,500 different works. Topics discussed in the volumes include, art, food, music, philology, sex, and wine.

Damaskios of Damascus, Syria, Δαμάσκιος, c. 458–538 CE. A Neoplatonist, Damaskios was the last scholar of the School of Athens. He wrote many works of which these survive: commentaries on Plato and Difficulties and Solutions of First Principles.

Demokritos (Democritus) of Abdera, Thrace, Δημόκριτος, Ἄβδηρα, Θρᾴκη, c. 460–370 BCE. Demokritos was a pre-Socratic philosopher, who proposed that all things were composed of atoms and void. Atoms were the smallest building blocks of the universe and void allowed motion to occur. His theory was later popularized by Epikouros and then expounded by the Roman poet and philosopher Lucretius.

Demosthenes of Athens, Δημοσθένης ὁ Ἀθηναῖος, c. 384–312 BCE. Statesman and orator, Demosthenes ranks as one of the ten greatest Attic orators. He was also a logographer, writing speeches for others, and a lawyer. He devoted significant energy to opposing the expansion of Makedonia under the rule of Philip II, and then again when Philip’s son, Alexander the Great, succeeded to the throne. To avoid capture by the crown of Makedonia, Demosthenes committed suicide.

Diogenes the Cynic of Sinope, Διογένης ὁ Κυνικός, Σινώπη, c. 412–323 BCE. Diogenes was a philosopher and founder of the Cynic school of philosophy. He believed in moral action rather than in theory. He lived simply and frugally, looking to nature as a guide to living well and authentically, declaring himself a citizen of the world.

Empedokles of Akragas, Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, Ἀκράγας, Σικελία, c. 494–434 BCE. Empedokles was a pre-Socratic philosopher, who contended that the senses were routes to knowledge and that the universe was made up of the following four substances: earth, air, fire, and water.

Epiktetos of Hierapolis, Phrygia, Ἐπίκτητος, c. 50–135 CE. Born a slave in Phrygia, Epiktetos was a stoic philosopher, living in Rome until he was banished to Nicopolis, Greece. About c. 68 CE, he gained his freedom and taught philosophy in Rome and then in c. 93 CE he moved to Nicopolis when Rome’s Emperor Domitian banished all philosophers from the city.

Eukleides (Euclid) of Alexandria, Εὐκλείδης c. 300 BCE. Born in Alexandria, Eukleides developed a conceptual system of geometry from a small set of axioms. His book, Elements, has been used to teach geometry up until 150 or so years ago.

Euripides of Athens, Εὐριπίδης ὁ Ἀθηναῖος, c. 480–406 BCE. An innovator who did not gain wide acceptance until after his death, Euripides wrote satyr plays and tragedies. He introduced comedy into tragedy and presented the heroes and heroines of his plays as everyday people. He was a proponent of the new music, which broke with tradition and is a feature of his work that shocked some of his contemporaries. In several plays, (Helen, Ion, Iphigeneia in Tauris), he created tragicomic plots that foreshadowed the so-called New Comedy. He wrote ninety-two plays and had four victories in the Athenian annual dramatic competition and festival in honor of Dionysos. Nineteen of his plays survive, more than any other tragedian.

Gorgias of Leontini, Γοργίας, Λεοντῖνοι, c. 483–376 BCE. Gorgias was a sophist, who specialized in teaching the art of rhetoric.

Herakleitos (Heraclitus) of Ephesos, Ἡράκλειτος ὁ Ἐφέσιος, c. 535–475 BCE. Herakleitos was a pre-Socratic philosopher who argued that the universe’s prime substance was fire, which all things contained within them, that the universe had always existed, and that all is in flux for one can never step into the same river twice.

Herodotos of Halikarnessos (Halicarnassus), Ἡρόδοτος ὁ Ἁλικαρνησσέος, c. 484–425 BCE. Herodotos was an ancient Greek historian who hailed from Halikarnessos, a Greek city founded by Dorians, ruled by a monarchy, and part of the Persian empire until conquered by Alexander the Great. Credited with inventing history, Herodotos wrote in a mixed Ionic dialect.

Hippokrates (Hippocrates) of Kos, Ἱπποκράτης ὁ Κῷος, c. 460–370 BC. Hippokrates was a physician, who made outstanding contributions to the field of medicine. Founder of the Hippocratic School of Medicine, he established medicine as a discipline and profession. He is credited with writing the Hippocratic Oath, a code of ethics, still in use today.

Homer, Ὅμηρος, c. 750 BCE. Homer is conventionally credited with the composition of the epic poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey, although today many scholars believe that the poems were composed by the different people. Of the many accounts of Homer’s life, the most common is that he was a blind bard from Ionia—blindness being associated with excellence in the poetic craft. Of him not much else is known and less is certain.

Julian, Flavius Claudius Julianus, c. 331 CE. Julian was Roman emperor from 361 to 363 CE. He was also a philosopher and author of many works written in Greek. About fifteen have survived. Julian rejected Christianity and promoted Neoplatonic Hellenism. For this the Christian Church named him Julian the Apostate. His work, The Caesars, was a satire that describes Roman emperors vying for the title of best emperor.

Kallimakhos of Kyrene, Libya, (Callimachus of Cyrene) Καλλίμαχος, c. 310–240 BCE. A poet and scholar, Kallimakhos was also a librarian at the famous library of Alexandria. He compiled the Pinakes, a catalogue of all Greek literature. He wrote over 800 works of literature, most of which have been lost. His main works are the Aitia, six religious hymns, sixty or so epigrams, satirical iambic poems, and Hekale, a narrative poem. He is known for writing short, polished poetry. His style influenced many, including the Roman poets, Catullus, Ovid, and Propertius.

Lucian of Samostoa, c. 125 CE. Born on the banks of the upper Euphrates River, Lucian was an Assyrian who wrote in ancient Greek but whose native language was probably Syriac, a dialect of Aramaic. What we know of Lucian comes from his own works. He was a satirist and rhetorician. He ridiculed hypocrisy, pedantry, religion, and superstition. Educated in Ionia he lived in Athens for approximately ten years during which time it is surmised that he wrote many of his works. Of the over eighty writings attributed to him, this textbook offers excerpts from A True Story, Ἀληθῆ διηγήματα; The Lover of Lies, Φιλοψευδής; and The Ass, Ὄνος, though it is not certain whether Lucian is the author of this last work. In his own day Lucian was very popular. Today his writings continue to exert influence.

Lykourgos (Lycurgus) of Athens Λυκοῦργος ὁ Ἀθηναῖος, c. 390–324 BCE. Lykourgos was one of the ten greatest orators of Athens. Most of his works are lost, though we have one speech in its entirety, Against Leokrates, and fragments of others.

Lysias of Syrakousios, Λυσίας Συρακούσιος, c. 445–380 BCE. Lysias was an Attic orator and one of the ten greatest of the Attic orators. He was also a logographer, writing speeches for others. His father, Kephalos, moved to Athens from the city of Syrakousios, Sikilia, at the invitation of the Athenian general, Perikles. A resident alien living in Athens, Lysias was nearly killed in 404 when the thirty tyrants ruled Athens. In 403 Lysias wrote a speech attacking Eratosthenes, one of the Thirty Tyrants.

Menandros (Menander) of Athens, Μένανδρος ὁ Ἀθηναῖος, c. 342–290 BCE. Menandros was a comic playwright who wrote 108 comedies. Popular in his own day, Menandros took first prize at the dramatic games of the Lenaia festival eight times. Many fragments and one play, almost complete, the Dyskolos, have survived the ravages of time.

Mimnermos of Kolophon or Smyrna, Μίμνερμος ἐκ Κολοφῶνος ἢ Σμύρνας, c. 630–600 BCE. A Greek elegiac poet, Mimnermos wrote short polished poetry on a variety of themes including age, death, and love. He influenced Kallimakhos and the Alexandrian poets and Properitus and the later Roman poets. Alexandrian scholars collected his poems into two books. Today only paltry scraps remain. As is the case with most of the ancients, what little we know of Mimnermos comes from what we glean from the small bits of his writings that have survived.

Parmenides of Elea, Παρμενίδης ὁ Ἐλεάτης, c. 500 BCE. Parmenides was a pre-Socratic philosopher who reasoned that the earth was a sphere and that sense perception was illusory. Thus the only way to truth was through logic.

Platon (Plato) of Athens, Πλάτων ὁ Ἀθηναῖος, c. 428–424 BCE. Platon was a student of Sokrates and a philosopher. Best known for his theory of forms and highly influential in his own day, Plato’s works continue to be read and studied.

Praxilla of Sikyon, Πράξιλλα Σικυών c. 451 BCE. Praxilla was a Greek lyric poet of high renown. Only a few fragments of her work have survived. Antipater of Thessalonike (c. 15 BCE) lists her as one of the nine immortal tongued female poets. Aristophanes parodies her in two of his comedies. The famous sculptor Lysippos (c. 350 BCE) sculpted her in bronze.

Protagoras of Abdera, Thrace, Πρωταγόρας, Ἄβδηρα, Θρᾴκη, c. 490–420 BCE. Protagoras was a pre-Socratic philosopher. In his dialogue Protagoras, Plato writes that Protagoras invented the professional sophist. Protagoras argued that it did not matter whether the gods existed—he was an agnostic—that there were two sides to every question, each opposed to the other; that the soul was nothing apart from the senses; that everything is true; that all values were relative; and that man is the “measure of all things, of things that are that they are, and of things that are not that they are not.” For these views it is said that the Athenians expelled him from their city and burnt his works in the market-place (Diogenes Laertius 9. 51–52).

Pythagoras of Samos, Πῡθαγόρᾱς ὁ Σάμιος, c. 570–495 BCE. Pythagoras was a pre-Socratic philosopher who argued that the soul was immortal and after its death was reborn into another body, either man, animal, or plant, through a process called metempsychosis, μετεμψύχωσις. The only end to this cycle was to attain purity of intellect and soul.

Sappho of Lesbos, Σαπφώ Λέσβου, c. 630–570 BCE. Born on the island of Lesbos, Sappho is one of the few women’s voices we have from antiquity. Regarded in antiquity as the tenth Muse, Sappho and her poetry are widely praised for their lyrical excellence. Time has taken from us most of what Sappho wrote and left to us even less information about her life. She is said to have had three brothers. She writes personal poetry, much of which reflects the love she has for other women.

Satyros of Kallatis, Σάτυρος Κάλλατις, c. 150 BCE. Satyros was a philosopher, historian, and biographer whose subjects included kings, philosophers, poets, orators, and statesmen. Fragments of his biography of Euripides were found on a papyrus scroll at Oxyrhynchus, Egypt in the early 1900s.

Sokrates (Socrates) of Athens, Σωκρᾰ́της ὁ Ἀθηναῖος, c. 469–399 BCE. Sokrates was an Athenian stonemason and carver and very poor. He was accused of being a sophist and was loved by some and hated by many of the Athenian people. Early in life Sokrates was intrigued by scientific speculation. He soon grew skeptical of it and turned his attention to inquiring into the right conduct of life.

Sophokles (Sophocles) of Athens, Σοφοκλῆς ὁ Ἀθηναῖος, c. 497–406 BCE. Sophokles wrote satyr plays and tragedies. He composed over 120 plays and seven have survived, the most famous being Oidipous Tyrannos (Oidipous Rex) and Antigone. He is said to have won twenty-four of the thirty competitions he entered. Of him it is said that he portrayed people as better than they are in reality.

Thales of Miletos, Θαλῆς ὁ Μιλήσιος, c. 624 BCE. Thales was a pre-Socratic philosopher who predicted an eclipse of the sun in 585 BCE and argued that the universe’s prime element was water.

Thrasymakhos of Khalkedon, Θρασύμαχος, Χαλκηδών, c. 459–400 BCE. Thrasymakhos was a sophist, who taught that justice is the interest of the stronger, i.e., that “might makes right.” He is best known as a character in Plato’s Republic.

Xenophanes of Kolophon, Ξενοφάνης ὁ Κολοφώνιος, c. 570–478 BCΕ. Xenophanes was a pre-Socratic philosopher who criticized Hesiod and Homer, arguing that their explanation of divine and human affairs was incorrect. He also criticized the adulation of athletes because wise men were much more important to society than a champion boxer. Finally he asserted that the gods were not anthropomorphic but that there was one god who was moral and motionless, all-knowing and all-powerful.

Xenophon of Athens, Ξενοφῶν ὁ Ἀθηναῖος, c. 430–454 BCE. Xenophon was a historian, military leader, and philosopher. A commander of the ten thousand who marched against the Persian king, Artaxerxes II, Xenophon recounts the failed attempt to usurp the Persian throne for Kyros the Younger as well as their successful journey home in his Anabasis. Xenophon also wrote the Kyropaidia, which focuses on Kyros the Great. Other works include several Socratic dialogues and his history, the Hellenika, which picks up where Thoukydides’ history ends.

Appendix XV: Top 250 Most Common Words

ἀγαθός, ἀγαθή, ἀγαθόν good, noble

ἄγω, ἄξω, ἤγαγον, ἦχα, ἦγμαι ἤχθην do, drive, lead; χάριν ἄγω I give thanks

ἀδελφός, ἀδελφοῦ brother

ἀδικέω, ἀδικήσω, ἠδίκησα, ἠδίκηκα, ἠδίκημαι, ἠδικήθην be unjust, do wrong

ἀεί (αἰεί) always

Ἀθηναῖος, Ἀθηναίᾱ, Ἀθηναῖον Athenian, of or from Athens

αἱρέω, αἱρήσω, εἷλον (inf. ἑλεῖν), ᾕρηκα, ᾕρημαι, ᾑρέθην take, seize, grab, capture; (mid.) choose; λόγος αἱρεῖ it makes sense, it is reasonable

ἀκούω, ἀκούσομαι, ἤκουσα, ἀκήκοα, ἤκουσμαι, ἠκούσθην hear, hear of or about, listen, heed + gen. or acc. of thing and gen. of person; have a reputation; κακῶς ἀκούειν to be spoken ill of

ἀληθής, ἀληθές true

ἀλλά but, for

------, ἀλλήλων one another, each other

ἄλλος, ἄλλη, ἄλλο another, other; ἄλλος ἄλλο λέγει one man says one thing; another says another; τῇ ἄλλῃ elsewhere

ἅμα (prep.) at the same time as + dat.; (adv.) at the same time, at once

ἀμφότερος, ἀμφοτέρᾱ, ἀμφότερον both

ἄν (adverb or particle) indicates something hypothetical, non-factual, or with the indicative something repeated over time

ἀνά (prep.) on, upon, onto + gen. or dat.; up to, throughout + acc.; (adv.) thereon, thereupon, throughout

ἀνάγκη, ἀνάγκης force, necessity, fate

ἀνήρ, ἀνδρός man, husband

ἄνθρωπος, ἀνθρώπου human, person

ἄξιος, ἀξίᾱ, ἄξιον worthy, deserving + gen.

ἀξιόω, ἀξιώσω, ἠξίωσα, ἠξίωκα, ἠξίωμαι, ἠξιώθην deem worthy, think fit + ‘x’ in acc. + inf.; expect + ‘x’ in acc. + inf; deemx’ in acc. worthy ofy’ in gen.

ἅπας, ἅπασα, ἅπαν all, each, every, whole

ἀπό from, away from + gen.

ἀποθνῄσκω (θνῄσκω), ἀποθανέομαι, ἀπέθανον, τέθνηκα, ------, ------ die, perish

ἀπόλλυμι (ὄλλυμι), ἀπολέω, ἀπώλεσα (trans.) or ἀπωλόμην (intrans.), ἀπολώλεκα (trans.) or ἀπόλωλα (intrans.), ------, ------ kill, lose; (mid. and intrans.) die, cease to exist

ἄρα (ῥά) and so, therefore, then, in that case

ἀρετή, ἀρετῆς virtue, excellence

ἀριθμός, ἀριθμοῦ number

ἀρχή, ἀρχῆς rule, command; beginning; province

ἄρχω, ἄρξω, ἦρξα, ἦρχα, ἦργμαι, ἤρχθην rule, command; begin + gen.; ἄρχειν ἀπὸ τῶν πατέρων to begin with the fathers

αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό he, she, it; -self (pred.) –self; (att.) same; (often + dative) τὰ αὐτὰ σοὶ ποιέω I do the same as you do; (adv.) αὐτοῦ there

ἀφικνέομαι, ἀφίξομαι, ἀφικόμην, ------, ἀφῖγμαι, ------ arrive, reach, come to

βασιλεύς, βασιλῆος (βασιλέως) king, chief

βίος, βίου life

βούλομαι, βουλήσομαι, ------, ------, βεβούλημαι, ἐβουλήθην want, prefer; wish, be willing

γάρ (postpositive) for

γε (enclitic) indeed, in fact, merely, at least

γένος, γένεος (γένους) τό race, kind, sort; birth, origin

γῆ, γῆς land, earth

γίγνομαι (γίνομαι), γενήσομαι, ἐγενόμην, γέγονα, γεγένημαι, ------ (ἐγενήθην, in late authors) be, be born, happen, become; γεγονός εὖ be well-born, be of noble-birth

γιγνώσκω, γνώσομαι, ἔγνων, ἔγνωκα, ἔγνωσμαι, ἐγνώσθην know, recognize; decide + inf.

γράφω, γράψω, ἔγραψα, γέγραφα, γέγραμμαι, ἐγράφην write

γυνή, γυναικός woman, wife

δέ (post-positive; sometimes indicates change of subject; often answers μέν) (conj.) and, but; (adv.) on the other hand

δεῖ, δεήσει, ἐδέησε(ν), δεδέηκε(ν), ------, ------ it is necessary + inf.; + subj. in gen. or dat. or acc. + inf., δεῖ ἐλθεῖν it is necessary to come, δεῖ τῶν στρατιωτῶν ἐλθεῖν or δεῖ τοῖς στρατιώταις ἐλθεῖν or δεῖ τοὺς στρατιώτας ἐλθεῖν it is necessary for the soldiers to come; + gen. there is a need of, δεῖ τινος there is a need of something; + gen. + inf δεῖ στρατηγοῦ εὑρεθῆναι there is a need of a general to be found; + gen. and dat. δεῖ μοί τινος there is a need to me of something

δείκνῡμι, δείξω (δέξω), δειξα (ἔδεξα), δέδειχα, δέδειγμαι, ἐδείχθην show, display

δεινός, δεινή, δεινόν awesome, fearsome, terrible; δεινὸς λέγειν clever at speaking

δέω, δεήσω, ἐδέησα, δεδέηκα, δεδέημαι, ἐδεήθην want, lack, miss, stand in need of, want + gen.; long or wish for + gen.; ask for ‘x’ in gen. or acc. from ‘y’ in gen., τοῦτο (or τούτου) ὑμῶν δέομαι I ask you for this

δή indeed, in fact, certainly

δῆμος, δήμου people

διά through, throughout + gen.; by + gen.; on account of + acc.

δίδωμι, δώσω, ἔδωκα, δέδωκα, δέδομαι, ἐδόθην give; allow ‘x’ in dat. or acc. + inf., ἐμὲ (έμοί) εὐτυχέειν δίδως you allow me to prosper

δίκαιος, δικαίᾱ, δίκαιον just

δίκη, δίκης custom, usage; judgment; order, right; penalty, sentence; lawsuit

δοκέω, δόξω, ́δοξα, ------, δέδογμαι, ἐδόχθην seem, think; seem best, think best + inf.; δοκεῖ μόρσιμον τῇ πόλει ἁλίσκεσθαι it seems fated for the city to be taken; δοκεῖ ἐμοί and δοκεῖν ἐμοί it seems to me

δόξα, δόξης expectation, notion, opinion; reputation

δύναμαι, δυνήσομαι, ------, ------, δεδύνημαι, ἐδυνήθην be able, be strong enough + inf.; be worth

δύναμις, δυνάμιος (δυνάμηος, δυνάμεως) might, strength, power; force, army

δύο two

ἐάν if

ἑαυτοῦ, ἑαυτῆς, ἑαυτοῦ himself, herself, itself

ἐγώ, ἐμοῦ or μου I, me, mine

ἐθέλω (θέλω), ἐθελήσω (θελήσω), ἠθέλησα, ἠθέληκα, ------, ------ wish, be willing

εἰ (proclitic) if

εἰμί, ἔσομαι, ------, ------, ------, ------ be, be possible

εἶμι come, go

εἷς, μία, ἕν; ἑνός, μιᾶς, ἑνός one

εἰς or ἐς (proclitic) to, into, against + acc.

ἐκ (proclitic) from, out of, by + gen.

ἕκαστος, ἑκάστη, ἕκαστον each

ἑκάτερος, ἑκατέρᾱ, ἑκάτερον each

ἐκεῖνος, ἐκείνη, ἐκεῖνο (κεῖνος, κείνη, κεῖνο) that, those; he, she, it, they

ἐλαύνω, ἐλάω, ἤλασα, ἐλήλακα, ἐλήλαμαι, ἠλάθην or ἠλάσθην drive, march

Ἕλλην, Ἕλληνος Greek

ἐμός, ἐμή, ἐμόν my

ἐν (proclitic) in, on, at, among + dat.

ἐναντίος, ἐναντίᾱ, ἐναντίον opposite + gen. or dat.

ἕνεκα (εἵνεκα) on account of, for the sake of + gen.

ἐπεί after, when, since

ἔπειτα thereupon, thereafter, then

ἐπί on, upon + gen.; in the time of + gen.; towards + gen.; on, at, next to + dat.; on, to, against, for + acc.; ἐφ᾽ on condition that

ἔργον, ἔργου τό deed, task, work; building; ἔργον in truth, in deed

ἔρομαι (εἴρομαι), ἐρήσομαι (εἰρήσομαι), ἠρόμην, -----, -----, ----- ask, ask ‘x’ in acc. about ‘y’ in acc.

ἔρχομαι, ἐλεύσομαι, ἦλθον (ἐλθεῖν), ἐλήλυθα, ------, ------ come, go

ἕτερος, ἑτέρᾱ, ἕτερον other, another

ἔτι yet, still

ἔτος, ἔτεος (ἔτους) τό year

εὖ well

εὐθύς, εὐθεῖα, εὐθύ straight, direct

εὑρίσκω, εὑρήσω, ηὗρον, ηὕρηκα, ηὕρημαι, ηὑρέθην find out, discover

ἔχω (imp. εἶχον), ἕξω or σχήσω, ἔσχον, ἔσχηκα, -ἔσχημαι, ------ have, hold; (+ adv) be, καλῶς ἔχειν be well; ὧδε ἔχει it is like so; be able + inf. (often impersonal); hinder, prevent, ἔχω αὐτὸν ταῦτα μὴ ποιεῖν I keep him from doing these things; (mid.) cleave, cling to + gen.; (mid.) be near or border + gen.; ἐχόμενόν ἐστι there belongs + gen.

ζάω (ζῇς, ζῇ), ζήσω, ἔζησα, ἔζηκα, ------, ------ live, breathe, be full of life

Ζεύς, Διός Zeus

or, than

ἡγέομαι, ἡγήσομαι, ἡγησάμην, ------, ἥγημαι, ἡγήθην lead, believe; lead, command + dat.; lead ‘x’ in gen. for ‘y’ in dat., ἡγεῖται ἡμῖν χοροῦ she leads our dance; rule, have dominion + gen.

ἤδη already, by this time, now

ἥκω, ἥξω, ------, ------, ------, ------ have come, be present

ἡμέρᾱ, ἡμέρᾱς day

θάλασσα (θάλαττα), θαλάσσης sea

θεός, θεοῦ god, goddess, deity

ἴδιος, ἰδίᾱ, ἴδιον one’s own; one’s self; ἰδίῃ personally, privately, for one’s own self

ἱερός, ἱερά, ἱερόν holy; (n. in sg.) temple; (n. in pl.) sacrifices

ἵημι, -ἥσω, -ἧκα, -εἷκα, -εἷμαι, -εἵθην release, hurl, send; (mid.) hasten

ἵνα in order that, so that, where

ἱππεύς, ἱππῆος (ἱππέως) knight, cavalryman; horseman, rider

ἵππος, ἵππου horse; (fem.) cavalry

ἴσος, ἴση, ἴσον equal, as many as; similar to + dat.

ἵστημι, στήσω, ἔστησα (trans.) or ἔστην (intrans.), ἕστηκα (intrans.), ἕσταμαι, ἐστάθην stand; make stand, place

καθίστημι (ἵστημι, στήσω, ἔστησα (trans.) or ἔστην (intrans.), ἕστηκα (intrans.), ἕσταμαι, ἐστάθην) (trans.) appoint, establish, put into a state; (intrans.) be established, be appointed, enter into a state

καί (conj.) and; (adv.) even, also, merely, indeed; (after ὅμοιος, ἴσος, αὐτός) as

καιρός, καιροῦ right moment, critical time, opportunity

κακός, κακή, κακόν bad, evil, cowardly

καλέω, καλέω, ἐκάλεσα, κέκληκα, κέκλημαι, ἐκλήθην call

καλός, καλή, καλόν beautiful, noble, good

κατά (prep.) down from + gen.; down toward + gen.; under + gen.; against + gen.; during + acc.; throughout + acc.; by, according to + acc.; καθ according, just as; (adv.) as, just as

κεῖμαι, κείσομαι, ------, ------, ------, ------ lie

κελεύω, κελεύσω, ἔκελευσα, κεκέλευκα, κεκέλευσμαι, ἐκελεύσθην bid, order, command; ask; urge, encourage; order ‘x’ in dat. or in acc. + inf.; give the order to, κελεύει σώζειν he gives the order to save

κοινός, κοινή, κοινόν shared, common; ἐκ τοῦ κοινοῦ shared in common; (n.) τὸ κοινόν the state

κρατέω, κρατήσω, ἐκράτησα, ------, ------, ἐκρατήθην be strong, powerful, rule + gen.

λαμβάνω, λήψομαι, ἔλαβον, εἴληφα, εἴλημμαι, ἐλήφθην take, receive; capture

λέγω, ἐρέω or λέξω, εἶπον or ἔλεξα, εἴρηκα, εἴρημαι or λέλεγμαι, ἐλέχθην or ἐρρήθην say, tell, speak; (personal) νόσον λέγεται ἔχειν Καμβύσης Kambyses is said to have an illness; (impers.) νόσον λέγεται ἔχειν Καμβύσην it is said that Kambyses has an illness

λόγος, λόγου word, speech, story; reason, account; value, esteem, talk, conversation; τῷ λόγῳ for the sake of argument, in word, i.e., falsely; ἐν λόγῳ in the rank of; κατὰ λόγον according to the value or esteem

λοιπός, λοιπή, λοιπόν left, remaining

μάλιστα especially, most; (with numbers) about

μᾶλλον more, rather

μανθάνω, μαθήσομαι, ἔμαθον, μεμάθηκα, ------, ------ learn; learn to, learn how to + inf.; understand

μάχη, μάχης battle

μέγας, μεγάλη, μέγα big, great

μέλλω, μελλήσω, ἐμέλλησα, ------, ------, ------ be about to, be going to; be likely to + inf. (fut. inf. in Attic)

μέν (post-positive; often looks forward to δέ to create contrast or parallelism) on the one hand; μέν . . .  δέ the one . . . the other; οἱ μέν . . . οἱ δέ some . . . others

μέντοι indeed, to be sure, however

μέρος, μέρεος (μέρους) τό share, portion, part; limb; one’s turn

μέσος, μέση, μέσον middle, middle of + gen.; ἐς μέσον in common, altogether

μετά with + gen; after + acc.; (adv.) after, next

μέχρι up to, until + gen.; μέχρι τούτου meanwhile

μή (mostly found in hypothetical contexts) no, not, lest

μηδέ (mostly found in hypothetical contexts) and . . . not

μηδείς, μηδεμία, μηδέν; μηδένος, μηδεμιᾶς, μηδένος (mostly found in hypothetical contexts) no one, nothing

μήν, μηνός month; (adv.) truly, surely

μήτε (mostly found in hypothetical contexts) neither, μήτε . . . μήτε neither . . . nor

μήτηρ, μητέρος (μητρός) mother

μικρός, μικρά, μικρόν small, little, short

μόνος, μόνη, μόνον only, sole, alone, solitary; one

νηῦς (ναῦς), νεός (νεώς) ship

νέος, νέᾱ, νέον new, fresh, young; strange, unexpected

νομίζω, νομιέω, ἐνόμισα, νενόμικα, νενόμισμαι, ἐνομίσθην believe, think, have the custom of, hold as custom

νόμος, νόμου law, custom

νῦν now

, , τό (proclitic, , , οἱ, αἱ) the; my, your, his, her; our, your, their; (used with abstract nouns, with names of famous or important people, and to generalize), οἱ ἄνθρωποι, people

ὅδε, ἥδε, τόδε he, she, it; this, these; the following; τῇδε here, thus, in the following way

οἶδα (inf. εἰδέναι), εἴσομαι, ------, ------, ------, ------ know, think; know how to + inf.

οἴομαι or οἶμαι, οἰήσομαι, ᾠσάμην, ------, ------, ᾠήθην think, suppose, believe

οἷος, οἵᾱ, οἷον such, such a kind; οἷός τέ εἰμι I am able, I am of such a kind to + inf.; οἷον or οἷα how, like, as, because

ὀλίγος, ὀλίγη, ὀλίγον few, little, small

ὅλος, ὅλη, ὅλον whole, entire

ὅμοιος, ὁμοίᾱ, ὅμοιον like, resembling + dat.

ὁμολογέω, ὁμολογήσω, ὡμολόγησα, ὡμολόγηκα, ὡμολόγημαι, ὡμολογήθην speak together; agree; admit

ὄνομα, ὀνόματος τό name

ὅπως so that, in order that; how; whenever

ὁράω (imp. ἑώραον), ὄψομαι, εἶδον (inf. ἰδεῖν), ἑόρακα or ἑώρακα, ἑώραμαι or ὦμμαι, ὤφθην see

ὀρθός, ὀρθή, ὀρθόν straight, correct, proper

ὅς, , who, whose, whom; which, that; by which way, just as; ἐν while; ἐς until

ὅσος, ὅση, ὅσον so many, as many as; ὅσῳ in so far as; to the degree that; ὅσον as far as; ἐπ᾽ ὅσον how far, to how great an extent

ὅστις, ἥτις, τι whoever, whatever

ὅταν (ὅτε + ἄν) whenever

ὅτε when

ὅτι that, because

οὐ, οὐκ, οὐχ (proclitic; mostly found in factual contexts; use οὐκ if the word that comes after starts with a smooth breathing; use οὐχ if the word that comes after starts with a rough breathing; if the word starts with a consonant, use οὐ) no, not

οὐδέ (mostly found in factual contexts) and not, but not, not even

οὐδείς, οὐδεμία, οὐδέν; οὐδένος, οὐδεμιᾶς, οὐδένος (mostly found in factual contexts) no one, nothing

οὖν then, therefore; really, certainly

οὔτε (mostly found in factual contexts) and not; neither; οὔτε . . . οὔτε neither . . . nor

οὗτος, αὕτη, τοῦτο he, she, it; this, these; ταύτῃ here, there, where, in this way

οὕτως (οὕτω) in this way, such, so

πάθος, πάθεος (πάθους) τό suffering; experience; passion; emotion

παῖς, παιδός child

πάλιν back

πάνυ perfectly, verily, by all means

παρά from + gen.; beside + dat.; to, toward + acc.; contrary to + acc.

πάρειμι be near, be present; (imper.) be possible

πάρειμι go in, enter; pass by

παρέχω (ἔχω, ἕξω or σχήσω, ἔσχον, ἔσχηκα, -ἔσχημαι, ------) furnish, hand over; supply; cause; allow, grant; be allowed, παρέχει it is allowed

πᾶς, πᾶσα, πᾶν all, each, every, whole

πάσχω, πείσομαι, ἔπαθον, πέπονθα, ------, ------ suffer, have done to one

πατήρ, πατρός father

πείθω, πείσω, ἔπεισα, πέπεικα, πέπεισμαι, ἑπείσθην persuade; (mid. or pass.) listen to, obey + dat. or gen.

πέμπω, πέμψω, ἔπεμψα, πέπομφα, πέπεμμαι, ἐπέμφθην send

περί about, concerning + gen; around, concerning + dat.; around, concerning + acc.

πλεῖστος, πλείστη, πλεῖστον most, greatest, largest

πλῆθος, πλήθεος (πλήθους) τό great number, multitude; sum

ποιέω, ποιήσω, ἐποίησα, πεποίηκα, πεποίημαι, ἐποιήθην do, make, cause; (mid.) consider, περὶ πολλοῦ ποιεῖσθαι to consider important; ἐν ἐλαφρῷ ποιεῖν to make light of; κακὰ ποιεῖν αὐτόν to do harm to him; οὐδένα λόγον ποιεῖν to consider ‘x’ in gen. of no account; make a poem, compose

πολέμιος, πολεμίᾱ, πολέμιον hostile

πόλεμος, πολέμου war

πόλις, πόλιος (πόληος, πόλεως) city

πολύς, πολλή, πολύ much, many

ποταμός, ποταμοῦ river

ποτε (enclitic) at some time, once, ever

πρᾶγμα, πράγματος τό matter, thing, affair; problem

πράττω (πράσσω, πρήσσω), πράξω, ἔρπαξα, πέπρᾱχα or πέπρᾱγα, πέπρᾱγμαι, ἐπράχθην do, make, fare; pass through; exact payment of ‘x’ in acc. from ‘y’ in acc.; πολλὰ πράττειν to be a busybody, to make trouble; κακῶς πράττειν to fare badly, fail, suffer;

πρίν (conj.) before, πρὶν () αὐτοὺς πέμψαι ταῦτα before they sent these things

πρό (prep.) before, in front of + gen; on behalf of + gen.

πρός (prep.) facing + gen.; from + gen.; in the eyes of + gen.; by + gen.; at, near + dat.; in addition + dat.; towards + acc.; against + acc.; in regard to + acc.; (adv.) additionally, in addition

πρότερος, προτέρᾱ, πρότερον prior, before, sooner

πρῶτος, πρώτη, πρῶτον first, for the present, just now

πῶς how

σκοπέω, σκοπήσω, ἐσκόπησα, ------, ἐσκόπημαι or ἔσκεμμαι, ------ look at; examine; consider, contemplate

σός, σή, σόν your

στρατηγός, στρατηγοῦ general

σύ, σοῦ or σου you, you, yours

συμβαίνω (βαίνω, βήσομαι, ἔβην, βέβηκα, βέβαμαι, ἐβάθην) stand with feet together; come together; come to an agreement, come to terms; meet + dat.; (impers.) come to pass, happen

σύν (ξύν) with, with help of + dat.

σφεῖς, σφέα; σφέων (σφῶν), σφέων (σφῶν) they, them, theirs

σῶμα, σώματος τό body

ταχύς, ταχεῖα, ταχύ swift

τε (enclitic and postpositive) and; τε . . . τε both . . . and

τεῖχος, τείχεος (τείχους) τό wall; (pl.) stronghold

τέλος, τέλεος (τέλους) τό end, boundary; power; office; (acc.) finally

τίθημι, θήσω, ἔθηκα