List of Illustrations

Fig. 1

Dante Gabriel Rossetti in 1850 at age twenty-two. A portrait by William Holman Hunt (c. 1883), Wikimedia,, Public Domain.


Fig. 2

An albumen print of Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Taken by Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) (1863), Wikimedia,, Public Domain.


Fig. 3

Hall Caine, The Manxman, as caricatured in Vanity Fair. John Bernard Partridge (1896), Wikimedia,, Public Domain.


Fig. 4

Photograph of William Sharp taken by an unknown photographer in Rome in 1883. Reproduced from William Sharp: A Memoir, compiled by Elizabeth Sharp (London: William Heinemann, 1910).


Fig. 5

Photograph of Edward Dowden Robinson (c. 1895), Wikimedia,, Public Domain.


Fig. 6

Alice Mona (Alison) Caird (1854–1922) Engraving based on a photograph by H. S. Mendelssohn Wikipedia,


Fig. 7

George Meredith in Robert Louis Stevenson: A Bookman Extra Number 1913 (London: Hodder & Stoughton), p. 138, Wikimedia,, Public Domain.


Fig. 8

Richard Le Gallienne (1866–1947). Photograph by Arthur Ellis (1894). Wikimedia,,_by_Alfred_Ellis.jpg, Public Domain.


Fig. 9

An 1897 photograph of Edmund Clarence Stedman (1833–1908), an American poet, critic, essayist, banker, and scientist. Wikimedia,, Public Domain.


Fig. 10

A self portrait of Theodore Roussel (1847–1926) a French painter, who moved to London in 1878 and two years later married the widow Frances Amelia Smithson Bull (1844–1909). A close friend of James McNeill, he was William Sharp’s “most intimate friend” in 1890. Wikipedia,


Fig. 11

John Robert Cozens, Lake Nemi (1777). © Tate,, CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0.


Fig. 12

Joseph Mallord William Turner, Lake Nemi (c. 1827–1828). Turner visited Lake Nemi in 1819 and painted this sketch from memory in Rome in 1828. © Tate,, CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0.


Fig. 13

Lake Nemi, Engraved by Middiman and Pye in 1819 after a sketch by Joseph Mallord William Turner. Transferred from the British Museum to Tate Britain in 1988,, CC-BY-NC-ND (3.0 Unported)


Fig. 14

Sir Charles Holroyd’s etching of William Sharp, which Sharp reproduced for insertion opposite the title page of Sospiri di Roma, the book of poems he wrote in Rome in January/February 1891 and published privately in Tivoli in March 1891,


Fig. 15

A pastel painting of William Sharp by the Norwegian painter Charles M. Ross. Sharp sat for this portrait in Rome in early March 1891. This is a photograph of the copy Elizabeth Sharp reproduced in her Memoir, taken by William Halloran (2021).


Fig. 16

Blanche Willis Howard, in F. E. Willard, A Woman of the Century: Fourteen Hundred-Seventy Biographical Sketches Accompanied by Portraits of Leading American Women in All Walks of Life (Buffalo, N. Y.: Moulton, 1893), 735. Wikipedia,, Public Domain.


Fig. 17

Photograph of Walt Whitman and his nurse Fritzenger (1890). Wikimedia,,_Walt_(1819-1892)_and_his_male_nurse_Fritzenger.JPG, Public Domain.


Fig. 18

Photograph of Horace Traubel (c. 1912). Wikimedia,, Public Domain.


Fig. 19

Early twentieth-century photograph of the house across the road from the Sharp’s Phenice Croft in Bucks Green, Rudgwick Sussex. © Rudgwick Preservation Society. Courtesy of Roger Nash, Chair, Rudgwick Preservation Society,


Fig. 20

Mid-twentieth-century photograph of Bucks Green, Rudgwick, Sussex. Phenice Croft, now the Toll House, is across the road from the building, now white, which housed the shop. © The Francis Frith Collection,


Fig. 21

Park House, Horsham, Sussex. Photograph by Whn64 (2013), Wikimedia,, CC BY-SA 3.0.


Fig. 22

Photograph of Edith Wingate Rinder known as “My Lady Greensleeves” reflecting the green velvet dress she wore for the sitting (c. 1894). The pose mirrors many of the paintings of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, especially those of Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Photographer unknown. Courtesy of Fig the Rinder family.


Fig. 23

Daniel Gabriel Rossetti, My Lady Greensleeves (1872). Oil on panel, 33 x 27.3 cm. Harvard Art Museums, Fogg Museum. Wikimedia,, Public Domain.


Fig. 24

The Great Bridge in Constantine Algeria 1899.jpg Silverbanks Pictures Image Archive, Photographer unknown. Wikimedia Commons,


Fig. 25

Ruins of the Baths of Antonius Pius, Carthage, Algeria. Photograph by BishkekRocks (2004), Wikimedia,, Public Domain.


Fig. 26

Portrait of Mary Beatrice Sharp, William Sharp’s youngest sister taken in the Davis Studios in Edinburgh in 1906. Mary provided the handwriting for Fiona Macleod’s extensive correspondence. Courtesy of the Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Dulles Reading Room, Firestone Library, Princeton University.


Fig. 27

Verso of Fig. 23 in Mary Sharp’s handwriting (the handwriting of Fiona Macleod). The photograph is inscribed “To the Reverend R. Wilkins Rees. Yours Sincerely, Mary B. Sharp. Fiona Macleod’s sister, who did all the writing of the Fiona Macleod work and carried on the correspondence connected with it.” Reverend R. Wilkins Rees was the author of ghost stories, among them “Ghost-Layers and Ghost-Laying,” in The Church Treasury of History, Custom, Folk-lore, Etc., ed. William Andrews (London: William Andrews & Company, 1898), 241–274.) Courtesy of the Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Dulles Reading Room, Firestone Library, Princeton University.


Fig. 28

Photograph of Grant Allen (1848–1899) by Elliott & Fry (c. 1899), Wikimedia,, Public Domain.


Fig. 29

Photograph of William Sharp by Frederick Hollyer (1894). Reproduced from Poems by William Sharp. Selected and arranged by Mrs. William Sharp (London, William Heinemann, 1912). Wikimedia,, Public Domain.


Fig. 30

Portrait of Henry Mills Alden (1836–1919), who edited Harper’s Magazine for fifty years, in 1910. Unknown photographer. Wikimedia,, Public Domain


Fig. 31

Sir Patrick Geddes (1854–1932). Photograph by Lafayette, 30 December 1931. © National Portrait Gallery, London. Some rights reserved.


Fig. 32

Winter on the Isle of Arran. By Archie46 — Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, Wikimedia Common,


Fig. 33

“Apollo’s School Days,” John Duncan, in The Evergreen: A Northern Seasonal, The Book of Spring (Edinburgh: Patrick Geddes and Colleagues, 1895). Photograph by William F. Halloran of his copy in 2020


Fig. 34

The Outlook Tower, Castlehill, Edinburgh., locus of the Scottish Celtic Revival. Photograph by Kim Traynor (2013), Wikimedia,,_Castlehill,_Edinburgh.JPG#/media/File:Outlook_Tower,_Castlehill,_Edinburgh.JPG, CC BY-SA 3.0


Fig. 35

An example of a Patrick Geddes and Colleague book: The Shadow of Arvor: Legendary Romances and Folk-Tales of Brittany, Translated and Retold by Edith Wingate Rinder (Edinburgh: Patrick Geddes & Colleagues, 1897). Printed by W. H. White and Co. Ltd., Edinburgh Riverside Press. Photograph by William F. Halloran (2019).


Fig. 36

Title page of the first edition of Lyra Celtica, An Anthology of Representative Celtic Poetry, edited by Elizabeth A. Sharp, with an Introduction and Notes by William Sharp (Edinburgh: Patrick Geddes and Colleagues, 1896),


Fig. 37

“The Croft,” Grant Allen’s House in Hindhead, Haslemere, Surrey (1906). © The Francis Frith Collection,


Fig. 38

Ramsay Gardens from Princes’ Street, Edinburgh. The Outlook Tower is on the High Street behind this impressive group of buildings. Photo by David Monniaux (2005), Wikimedia,, CC BY-SA 3.0.


Fig. 39

Fiona Macleod, The Sin-Eater and Other Tales (Edinburgh: Patrick Geddes & Colleagues, 1895). Photograph by William F. Halloran (2019).


Fig. 40

William Butler Yeats (1865–1939). Photograph by Alice Boughton (1903), Wikimedia,, Public Domain.


Fig. 41

The first American edition of Fiona MacLeod’s Green Fire. A Romance (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1896). Photograph by William F. Halloran (2019).


Fig. 42

Poster advertising the premiere of Esclarmonde, libretto by Alfred Blau and Louis de Gramodt, music by Jules Massenet’s, Paris, May 1889. August François-Marie Gorguet, Esclarmonde (1889), chromolithograph. Wikimedia,, Public Domain.


Fig. 43

Cover and title page of the first edition of Fiona Macleod’s From the Hills of Dream (Edinburgh: Patrick Geddes & Colleagues, 1896). Photograph by William F. Halloran (2019).


Fig. 44

Fiona Macleod stories reissued in paperbacks by Patrick Geddes and Colleagues in 1896. Photograph by William F. Halloran (2019).


Fig. 45

Coulson Kernahan (1853–1943). Photography by Elliot and Fry (1903). Public Domain. Wikipedia,


Fig. 46

An etching of William Sharp, dated about 1897, by William Strang (1859–1921). Printed by David Strang (1887–1967), the artist’s son. Photograph by William F. Halloran of his copy (2019).


Fig. 47

Cartledge Hall, Holmesfield, Derbyshire. Home of R. Murray Gilchrist and family. Photograph by Dave Hobson (2014). Courtesy of Vale of Belvoir Ramblers,


Fig. 48

This photograph of William Sharp was taken in Dublin in late September 1897, and sent to Henry Mills Alden, editor of Harper’s Magazine and Sharp’s friend, at Christmas, 1897. Courtesy of the University of Delaware Library (The Henry Mills Alden Papers), Public Domain.


Fig. 49

Maud Gonne McBride (1866–1953). Wikimedia, Public Domain.


Fig. 50

Moina Mathers (1865–1928), the wife of Macgregor Mathers and sister of Henri Bergson, was an artist, occultist, and founder of the Alpha et Omega Lodge of the Golden Dawn. Left: Moina Mathers from her performance in the Rites of Isis in the Paris Lodge of the Golden Dawn (1899), Wikimedia,, Public Domain. Right: Moina Mathers (c. 1887). Public Domain. Wikimedia,


Fig. 51

The elaborate cover design of The Dark Way of Love, Edith Wingate Rinder’s translation of C. Le Goffic’s Le Crucifié de Keraliès, published by Archibald Constable in 1898. Photograph by William F. Halloran of his copy.


Fig. 52

Dame Edith Sophy Lyttelton (née Balfour) after a picture by Romney; by Lafayette, photogravure by Walker & Boutall, 1897; published 1899. © National Portrait Gallery, London. Some rights reserved.


Fig. 53

Recent photograph of Wharncliffe, Chorleywood, London,!/c/chorleywood/chorleywood-wharncliffe-google.jpg


Fig. 54

Benedictine Abbey on Iona, Inner Hebrides, constructed in 1203 AD on the site of the Celtic Church which St. Columbo built after he settled on Iona in 563 AD and began to establish Christianity in Scotland. Photograph by Paul T. (Gunther Tschuch) (2019), Wikimedia,, CC BY-SA 4.0.


Fig. 55

Map of the Isle of Mull in Scotland’s Inner Hebrides. Iona is the tiny island located off Mull’s eastern-most tip. Wikimedia,, OGL v.3. Contains OS data © Crown copyright and database right (2021).


Fig. 56

Taormina on the east Coast of Sicily with Mt. Etna in the distance. Photograph by Miguel Torres (2011), Wikimedia,, CC BY-SA 3.0.


Fig. 57

Bust and portrait of the 5th Duke of Bronté, Alexander Nelson Hood (1854–1937), on display in the Castello Nelson (formally the Castello Maniace). Photographs by Warwick Gould (2014), reproduced with permission.


Fig. 58

The Greek Theater in Syracuse, Sicily. Built about 470 B. C., it is the largest surviving theater of the ancient world. Photograph by Michele Ponzio (2006), Wikimedia,, CC BY-SA 2.0.


Fig. 59

A recent photograph of the beautifully restored Villa Il Palmerino in Settignano, north-east of Florence, where Eugene Lee-Hamilton and Vernon Lee lived for many years. Photograph by Sailko (2016), Wikimedia,,_esterno_04.jpg, CC BY 3.0.


Fig. 60

Baron Christian Karl Bernard Tauchnitz (1841–1921). Portrait by Vilma Lwoff-Parlaghy (1901). Wikimedia,, Public Domain


Fig. 61

Theodore Watts-Dunton (1832–1914). Portrait by H. B. Norris (1902). Public Domain. Wikimedia,


Fig. 62

Maude Valérie White. Photograph by Herbert Rose Barraud, published by Eglington & Co. Carbon print, published 1889. © National Portrait Gallery, London. Some rights reserved.


Fig. 63

Photograph of the Hotel Castello-a-Mare taken in 1937. William and Elizabeth Sharp stayed here in April 1902, and he described the view from the terrace outside his window in an April 3 letter to Mrs. J. H. Philpot. Photograph of postcard taken by William F. Halloran (2021). Original photographer unknown.


Fig. 64

Taormina as seen from the Saracen castle overlooking the town. The Hotel Castello-a-Mare is at the far left. The Greek theater is in the background. Photograph by Solomonn Levi, Wikimedia,, CC BY-SA 4.0.


Fig. 65

North Lismore from Port Appin on the mainland with the hills of Kingairloch beyond. Photograph by Alan Partridge (2004), Wikimedia,, CC BY-SA 2.0.


Fig. 66

The Ferrovia Circumetnea is a narrow-gauge railway which encircles Mount Etna. From its terminal in Catania the line loops around Mount Etna and eventually reaches the other terminal at the seaside town of Riposto. Its rolling stock has been updated several times, but the route is the same as when the Sharps boarded the train to travel back and forth between Taormina and the Castello Maniace in the early twentieth century. Photograph by Arbalete (2011), Wikimedia,, CC BY-SA 3.0.


Fig. 67

The Randazzo station of the Ferrovia Circumetnea where the Sharps entered and left the train on their trips to the Castello Maniace. Photograph by LuckyLisp (2005), Wikimedia,, CC BY-SA 3.0.


Fig. 68

Sir Alexander Nelson Hood, Fifth Duke of Bronté (1854–1937). “The Princess’s Private Secretary,” Caricature by Spy (Leslie Ward), published in Vanity Fair in 1905. Wikimedia,,_5th_Duke_of_Bronté#/media/File:Alexander_Nelson_Hood,_Vanity_Fair,_1905-10-26.jpg, Public Domain.


Fig. 69

Robert Smythe Hichens (1864–1950). Photograph by unknown photographer (1912), in Frederic Taber Cooper, Some English Story Tellers (New York: Henry Holt & Co, 1912). Wikimedia,, Public Domain.


Fig. 70

View over the excavation site towards Eleusis, the site of the Eleusinian Mysteries, or the Mysteries of Demeter and Kore, which became popular in the Greek-speaking world as early as 600 BC and attracted initiates during the Roman Empire before declining in the fourth century AD. Photograph by Carole Raddato (2005), Wikimedia,,_center_for_the_Eleusinian_Mysteries,_Eleusis_(8191841684).jpg, CC BY-SA 2.0.


Fig. 71

The Firth of Clyde at Kilcreggan (on the right), with PS Waverley approaching across Loch Long. Photograph by Dave Souza (2018), Wikimedia,, CCBY-SA-4.0.


Fig. 72

Ye Wells Hotel, Llandrindod where William Sharp received treatment for diabetes in September 1903: “the rigorous treatment, the potent Saline and Sulphur waters and baths, the not less potent and marvelously pure and regenerative Llandrindod air … have combined to work a wonderful change for the better.” Photograph by Percy Benzie Abery (193-?), Wikimedia,,_Llandrindod_(1293703).jpg, CC0.


Fig. 73

Valle del Simeto, Catania. Photograph by Davide Restivo (2007), Wikimedia,, CC BY-SA 2.0.


Fig. 74

Mount Pentelicus is a mountain in Attica, Greece, situated northeast of Athens and southwest of Marathon. The mountain is covered in large part with forest (about 60 or 70%), and can be seen from southern Athens (Attica). Marble from Mount Pentelicus is of exceptionally high quality and was used to construct much of the Athenian Acropolis. Photograph by Dimorsitanos (2008), Wikimedia,, CC BY-SA 4.0.


Fig. 75

Photograph of William Sharp by Frederick Hollyer (1894). Reproduced from Poems by William Sharp. Selected and arranged by Mrs. William Sharp (London, William Heinemann, 1912). Wikimedia,, Public Domain.


Fig. 76

Photograph of William Sharp, taken by Alexander Nelson Hood, the Duke of Bronte, at his Castle Maniace in November 1903. Reproduced by Elizabeth Sharp in her Memoir (358).


Fig. 77

Statue of Anteros, Shaftesbury Memorial, Piccadilly Circus, London. Sculpted by Alfred Gilbert and erected in 1893. Photograph by Diego Delso (2014), Wikimedia,,_Piccadilly_Circus,_Londres,_Inglaterra,_2014-08-11,_DD_159.JPG, CC BY-SA 4.0.


Fig. 78

Interior Courtyard of Boston’s Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum which was built in 1903 to house the Gardner collection. The building replicates a fifteenth-century Venetian palace. The Sharps toured the building only a year after its completion and well before the collection achieved its zenith. Photograph by Sean Dungan (2017). Wikimedia,,_Isabella_Stewart_Gardner_Museum,_Boston.jpg#/media/File:Courtyard,_Isabella_Stewart_Gardner_Museum,_Boston.jpg, CC BY 4.0.


Fig. 79

The Lismore ferry in winter. This ferry was not available to Sharp and his sister in 1905. Photograph by Magnus Hagdorn (2012), Wikimedia,, CC BY-SA 2.0.


Fig. 80

John Keats (1793–1879), by Joseph Severn (1819). Oil on ivory miniature, 105 x 79 mm, National Portrait Gallery. Wikimedia, Domain,, Public Domain.


Fig. 81

John Keats, by William Hilton (c. 1822). Oil on canvas, 76.2 x 63.5 cm, National Portrait Gallery. Wikimedia,, Public Domain.


Fig 82

Professor Franciscus Donders (1818–1889), by Bramine Hubrecht (1888). Oil on canvas, 142 x 95 cm, Rijkmuseum. Wikimedia,, Public Domain.


Fig. 83

Alphons Marie Antoine Joseph Grandmont (1837–1909), by Bramine Hubrecht (1900–1909). The painting depicts the artist’s second husband tutoring two Italian girls. Oil on canvas, 100 x 100 cm, Rijkmuseum. Wikimedia,,_lesgevend_aan_twee_Italiaanse_meisjes_Rijksmuseum_SK-A-2794.jpeg, Public Domain.


Fig 84.

Portrait of Millicent Leveson-Gower, Duchess of Sutherland, by John Singer Sargent (1904). Oil on canvas, 254 x 146 cm, Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum. Wikimedia,,_Duchess_of_Sutherland.jpg, Public Domain.


Fig. 85

A Celtic Cross marking William Sharp’s Grave. Castello Nelson’s Protestant Cemetery, Sicily. Photograph by Warwick Gould (2016), reproduced with his permission.


Fig. 86

Photograph of William and Elizabeth Sharp in 1904, unknown photographer. Gift of Noel Farquharson Sharp to William F. Halloran in 1968.


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