9/11 terrorist attacks 357

1848. See Revolutions of 1848

1968 85, 90, 224, 290291, 319, 415, 419424, 490, 522, 555556, 649, 652, 687, 721, 753754, 811814, 849850, 913

abolitionism 79, 308, 399, 402, 405, 408409, 413, 574, 665, 667, 671, 875

abortion 159160, 224225, 421

Acosta, José de 100

Africa 1012, 17, 39, 55, 6869, 7174, 83, 90, 92, 97, 99, 102, 104106, 109, 114116, 119122, 127129, 162, 171, 175, 237238, 257, 271, 287, 289, 300, 302304, 307308, 311, 313, 319320, 322325, 355, 365, 379, 419, 448, 489, 531, 545, 550551, 564, 569, 627, 637, 666, 780, 912

Age of Revolutions 275276, 351352

Agricola, Rudolph 9

Aitzing, Michael von 11

Albert, Archduke 367

alcohol 452, 546, 578, 856, 899, 912

Aleš, Mikoláš 111

Alexander I 18

Alexander II 78, 114, 409

Alfred I 343

Algerian War 92, 324, 389, 420

Alphand, Adolphe 899

Alps 38, 42, 48, 140, 446, 574, 632

America xvii, 1112, 18, 2627, 2930, 33, 4951, 57, 72, 74, 81, 101105, 110111, 122, 126129, 156, 162, 237, 271, 286287, 289, 291292, 298304, 313, 317, 324, 333335, 337, 351, 356, 365, 370, 373376, 378, 384, 387388, 401402, 412, 419, 421, 439, 442444, 446448, 452453, 457458, 485, 502, 531, 533, 550, 554, 564566, 579, 584587, 590, 607, 637, 648, 666, 684, 698, 711, 734, 740741, 755, 762763, 773, 776, 780, 808, 817, 846, 858859, 863, 872, 875876, 881, 911912, 946. See also United States of America

American civil rights movement 255, 292, 811

Americanisation 110, 126, 387, 459, 810, 881

American Revolution 333335, 337, 351, 412

American Revolutionary War 370

ancien régime 42, 232, 239, 248, 276, 334, 376, 402, 598, 706, 734, 741, 763, 794, 859, 930

Andrade, Oswald de 128

Anglican Church 66, 465, 696, 711712, 730, 923

Angola 92, 159, 323, 325, 568

D'Annunzio, Gabriele 878

Anthropocene 545, 547, 557

antiquity 8, 10, 102, 105, 336, 412, 432, 498, 504, 666, 728729, 821, 888, 890, 919920, 924, 927, 948

apprenticeships 436, 631, 662, 666

April Laws 344

Arendt, Hannah 749750

Aristotle 11, 101, 105, 201, 888

Armenian Genocide 718, 723

Arminius, Jacobus 700

Arrhenius, Svante 545

Asia 1011, 65, 73, 97, 99, 102, 106, 109, 112114, 119, 123125, 162, 207, 271, 287, 289, 299302, 304, 319, 322323, 358, 365366, 379, 396, 419, 434, 448, 458, 508, 550, 564, 566568, 570, 578, 621, 627, 629, 633, 637, 651, 698, 767, 774, 780

Athens , 366, 419, 687, 902, 904, 1

Atlantic Ocean 11, 31, 50, 68, 7374, 79, 99, 110, 298299, 304, 308, 348, 435, 443444, 446, 523, 534, 556, 563565, 568569, 584, 633, 637, 666, 762, 769, 773, 848, 861, 863, 870

Atlantic Revolution 238, 333, 401402, 861, 865

Atlantic slave trade 7173, 105, 237, 244, 308, 666

Augustine of Hippo 8

Australia 80, 82, 648, 942

Austria 8, 15, 17, 19, 26, 39, 4243, 51, 5458, 66, 70, 80, 103, 156, 167, 172, 181184, 191192, 195, 212214, 245, 255256, 277, 286287, 313, 331, 334335, 340, 343347, 367371, 375376, 396, 402, 411, 417, 475, 487, 491, 502, 514, 518, 570, 575, 583, 586, 595, 609, 621, 707, 749, 783, 803804, 849, 930, 936, 945, 948

Austria-Hungary 56, 192, 214, 256, 277, 286, 347, 475, 575, 583. See also Habsburg Empire

Austrian War of Succession. See War of the Austrian Succession

authoritarianism 2930, 123, 128, 185, 189, 253, 291292, 323, 344, 353, 356358, 387, 417419, 424, 455, 457, 459, 728, 743, 749, 812, 845, 877, 883, 909, 934, 945

automobile 65, 485, 650, 652, 679. See also car

Babeuf, François Noël 402, 742

baby boom 155, 158159, 161, 810, 815

baby boomers 255, 808809

Bacon, Francis 454, 498, 539, 822

Bakunin, Mikhail 77, 346347, 411

Balaguer, Victor 932

Balcerowicz, Leszek 589

Balkans 37, 41, 47, 49, 70, 79, 140, 180, 190191, 277, 286, 341, 357, 364365, 448, 708709, 717, 775776, 784

Balkan Wars 278, 709, 715, 784

Baltic Sea 99, 300, 453, 549, 569

Balzac, Honoré de 837

Barbaro, Francesco 9

Barbary Pirates 17, 115, 366

Barcelona 419, 438, 476, 932, 936

Barthou, Louis 355

Barzizza, Gasparino 498

Báthory, Sigismund 701

Battle of Lepanto 365

Battle of Magenta 346

Battle of Mohács 70

Battle of Nieuwpoort 367

Battle of Pavia 363, 366

Battle of Saint Quentin 366

Battle of Solferino 17, 346

Battle of Waterloo 77, 370, 374

Baudelaire, Charles 838, 899

Bauhaus 844

Bayle, Pierre 731

Beatles, The 811, 817, 881

Belgium 47, 77, 83, 9092, 121, 180, 190, 214, 245, 277, 279, 286, 289, 308309, 320321, 323, 331, 333334, 336, 341, 356, 375, 396, 402, 411, 448, 452, 487, 491, 509, 511, 534, 575, 586, 588, 639, 660, 671, 682, 707, 770, 772, 903

Belle Époque 243, 612, 639, 644, 648

Benjamin, Walter 58, 876

Benois, Alexandre 842

Bentham, Jeremy 377, 740

Berlin xvii, 54, 5859, 86, 90, 115, 158, 162, 277, 292, 344, 357, 379, 389, 396, 417, 420, 422423, 453, 475, 485, 519, 543544, 580, 622, 723, 755, 786, 847, 849, 871, 878, 909, 911

Berlin Conference 115, 379

Berlin Uprising 422

Berlin Wall xvii, 54, 59, 90, 158, 357, 389, 423, 453, 622, 723, 755

Bern Convention 446

Bernstein, Eduard 743

Beuys, Joseph 847

van Beverwijck, Johan 793

biennio rosso 354

Bílejovský, Bohuslav 920922

Bingen 38

Birmingham School 811, 880

Bismarck, Otto von 19, 345, 347, 407, 480, 487, 609, 743

Black Acts 400

Black Death 135, 137, 140, 600, 659, 662. See also plague

Blanc, Louis 480

Bloody Week 346

Blue Banana 486487, 785

Bodin, Jean 102, 234, 469, 729

Boer War 489

Bohemia 57, 66, 80, 167, 182, 194, 367368, 400, 500, 503, 512, 607, 786, 870, 919923, 925926, 930931, 945

Bohr, Niels 452

Bologna Process 32, 524

Bolsheviks 29, 124, 277, 287, 352354, 358, 384385, 416, 585, 619, 716717, 723, 751, 842, 879

Bolshevik Triennium 354

Bossuet, Jacques-Bénigne 727, 730

Botero, Giovanni 469

Bourbon Restoration 933

Bourdieu, Pierre 653, 880

Bourignon, Antoinette 826827

Boxer Rebellion 114

Brabant Revolution 334335

Brandt, Geeraerdt 924

Brandt, Willy 946947

Braque, Georges 836

Brazil 68, 73, 80, 104, 128, 299300, 303304, 308, 341, 358, 458, 564, 568, 667, 780

Bret, Cardin Le 761

Bretton Woods system 649, 782

Breughel the Elder, Pieter 892

Brezhnev, Leonid 721, 753

Briand, Aristide 27

Brigate Rosse 356

Britannia 281

British East India Company (EIC) 307, 567, 567568, 568, 570571, 578, 578579

British Empire 94, 159, 298, 300, 308, 317, 321, 409410, 571, 577, 771, 872

British Invasion 881

Buchez, Phillippe 22

Budapest 280, 422, 559, 581, 620, 910

Budapest School 620

Bulgaria 55, 88, 155, 190, 277, 289, 355, 708709, 715, 717, 721722, 749

Bünting, Heinrich 7, 11

Burke, Edmund 351

Cabral, Pedro Álvares 104, 564

Calvinism 6667, 282, 333, 365, 367, 464, 501, 695696, 700702, 715716, 919

Calvin, Jean 399, 498, 700, 728729

Caminha, Pêro Vaz de 104

Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) 811

Campe, Joachim Heinrich 795

Canada 72, 80, 156, 159, 369370, 648, 857, 877

Capellen tot den Pol, Derk van der 334

capitalism 2021, 27, 57, 110, 124, 127, 207, 234236, 239, 248, 252254, 257, 275276, 289291, 302, 325, 347, 356, 406, 421, 431, 445446, 459, 468, 476477, 480, 485, 491492, 530, 540, 543, 549550, 553, 556, 573574, 579, 581, 584, 590591, 595596, 606, 611, 616, 618, 620623, 637639, 641, 648649, 653654, 667, 669, 674675, 680, 683, 688, 721, 743, 747748, 751752, 754, 805, 832, 898, 905, 941

car 458459, 485, 620, 652653, 908, 913. See also automobile

Carcassonne 936

Carlowitz, Hans Carl von 42, 541

Carnation Revolution 323

Carol I 279

Carpathians 4849, 140, 156

Carson, Rachel 554

Casas, Bartolomé de las 105106

Castiglione, Baldassare 366

Castillo, Bernal Diaz del 101

Castro, Fidel 419

Catalonia 277, 331, 542, 600, 786, 932

Catherine II 732, 765766

Catholic Church 16, 99, 145, 226, 397, 423, 698, 701, 715716, 718719, 721, 723, 749, 919, 923, 930, 933

Catholic Emancipation Act 406

Catholicism 16, 29, 6668, 99, 128, 145, 169, 190, 203204, 206, 212213, 226, 244, 269, 299, 311, 329, 331, 334, 354355, 364365, 367368, 397398, 406, 423, 466, 469, 498500, 509, 541, 565, 695699, 701703, 705711, 715716, 718721, 723, 729730, 749, 804, 821822, 824, 826827, 863, 867, 919921, 923, 930, 933934

Cats, Jacob 793

Cavour, Count 345

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) 356

Cerdá, Ildefonso 476

Cervantes, Miguel de 72

Cézanne, Paul 836

Chadwick, Edwin 544

Charbonnerie 340

Charlemagne 16, 297

Charles Albert 345

Charles II 369, 890

Charles V 11, 269, 299, 363366, 396, 398

Charles VI 70, 369

Charles X 77

Charta 77 423

Chartism 342, 344, 347, 406, 413, 675, 741

Chateaubriand, François-René de 707

Chekhov, Anton 837

Chernobyl 421, 457, 556

China 10, 83, 100, 103, 112114, 116, 122125, 128, 144, 434, 458, 563, 578, 632, 654, 682, 774, 900

Chodsko 57

Christian democracy 224, 753

Christian Democratic Union (CDU) 124125

Christianity 710, 12, 1518, 25, 29, 31, 39, 41, 43, 6770, 73, 100102, 104, 106, 124125, 170171, 173, 190, 212, 224, 237, 243, 258, 271, 301, 303, 311, 314, 331, 364, 366367, 400, 464465, 504, 535, 564, 574, 597598, 634, 665666, 695696, 700703, 707708, 718722, 728729, 734, 753, 767, 804, 821823, 825826, 828, 890, 919923, 926, 948

Christian IV 173, 367

Christmas Rebellion 314

Churchill, Winston 31, 369

cinema 867, 869, 873, 879, 881

citizenship 42, 91, 93, 191, 221, 223, 254255, 258, 269, 285, 291293, 333, 405, 634

civilising mission 307, 317, 320321, 676, 775

Clausewitz, Carl von 374

Clement VIII 701

Club de Berne 356

Club of Rome 556

Coase, Ronald 642

coffee 310, 578, 629, 633634, 642, 662, 810, 899

Cold War 3033, 5355, 8990, 93, 124125, 162, 194195, 197, 251, 254, 285, 289290, 318319, 333, 355, 357358, 383, 385388, 390, 420421, 424, 451, 453, 455, 457, 459, 483, 492, 521, 525, 549, 555, 558, 583, 591, 623, 649, 652, 683, 685686, 719, 723, 752, 755, 784, 787, 809, 813, 815, 877, 881, 945, 949

collectivism 843

Columbian Exchange 237, 531

Columbus, Christopher 104, 563, 565

Comenius, John Amos 469, 500, 503, 791, 793, 827, 894

Comintern 354

communism 21, 30, 54, 77, 85, 90, 124, 161, 194, 251255, 257258, 289, 291292, 339, 346, 353354, 357358, 378, 385387, 389, 415418, 420, 422424, 483, 491, 549550, 552, 556557, 585, 589590, 616618, 621622, 648649, 675, 688, 716, 719, 721722, 742743, 748749, 751755, 781, 784, 805, 823824, 850, 879, 945, 947

Communist Manifesto 252, 346, 607, 618, 677

Comte, Auguste 744, 807

Comuneros 269

Concert of Europe 19, 370, 373, 375

Condillac, Étienne Bonnot de 737

Condorcet, Nicolas de 737

Confédération Générale du Travail (CGT) 417

Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) 388

confessionalisation 695697, 703, 729

Congress of Vienna 17, 20, 46, 113, 115, 277278, 340, 375, 377

Conguitos 120121

Conrad, Joseph 837

conservatism 19, 22, 29, 124, 126, 149, 212, 223, 255, 258, 292, 334335, 341, 354355, 407, 413, 416417, 420, 423, 476, 491, 498, 504, 569, 584, 601, 676, 712, 719720, 738, 743744, 747749, 753, 814, 920, 945

Considerant, Victor 22

Constant, Benjamin 16, 739

Constitution for Europe 32

consumer society 459, 620, 627628, 630, 632, 635, 642645, 652654, 811

contraception 138, 156, 158, 160, 205, 711

Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of Terrorism 355

Cooley, Charles Horton 876877

Córdoba, Gonzalo Fernández de 366

cordon sanitaire 3031

Cortes, Hernán 299

cotton 309, 439, 543, 553, 628629, 634, 642, 666

Coubertin, Pierre de 902

Coudenhove-Kalergi, Richard von 2628, 948

Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (Comecon) 291, 589, 652, 783

Council of Europe 384, 520, 948

Council of Trent 698699, 718

counterculture 224, 752753, 811812, 815, 841, 849

Courbet, Gustave 834

Crimean War 78, 113, 115, 375, 671

Croatia 55, 70, 88, 167, 195, 287, 499, 717, 749

Cromwell, Oliver 890

Cuba 159, 308, 356, 419

Cubism 836837, 844, 846

cultivation system 310

Cuza, Alexandru Ioan 279

Cyprus 55, 356

Czartoryski, Adam 18, 377

Czech lands 48, 510, 749, 786, 920921, 930

Czechoslovakia 26, 28, 54, 5657, 8990, 160161, 192194, 278, 286289, 291, 318319, 325, 422424, 458, 687, 721722, 753, 783784, 944946

Czech Republic xvii, 5455, 156, 161, 195, 310, 682, 947

Dada 841, 844, 846847, 849

Daguerre, Louis 868

Dalí, Salvador 845

Danube 48, 365366

Danzig 53, 58, 570. See also Gdańsk

Darwin, Charles 442, 477, 479, 508, 540, 743744, 837

d’Azeglio, Massimo 49

Debray, Régis 325

Debussy, Claude 839

Decembrists 340

Declaration of Paris 376

Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen 233, 407, 706

decolonisation 9192, 120, 122, 159, 195, 257, 288289, 319, 321326, 387, 420, 810, 942, 948

Dee, John 300

d’Eichthal, Gustave 22

deindustrialisation 485486, 687, 786

Delaunay, Robert 845

democracy 16, 19, 2122, 28, 30, 32, 5556, 110, 113, 125127, 195, 224, 243, 248, 253, 258, 269, 289291, 323, 333334, 336, 345347, 354358, 378, 384385, 395, 402, 405406, 410, 413, 415, 417, 420, 423424, 457, 459, 483, 491492, 549, 609, 616618, 622, 648, 675676, 717, 719720, 722, 732, 738741, 743744, 752755, 811, 813, 832, 834, 862, 865, 871, 879, 883, 931, 934

Denmark 7, 19, 54, 136, 173, 180, 225, 254, 267, 277, 279, 324, 345, 367368, 406, 411, 487, 530, 586, 667, 671, 685, 814

Descartes, René 454, 498, 535

De Stijl 846

diaspora 6669, 7576, 285287, 293, 700701, 902

Dickens, Charles 607, 837

Diderot, Denis 732734

Diesel, Rudolf 445

Dom Miguel 77

Douglass, Frederick 875

Dreyfus, Alfred 78, 245246

Duchamp, Marcel 846, 848

Duke of Berry 340

Dunant, Henry 17

Dürer, Albrecht 632

Durkheim, Émile 709

Dutch East India Company (VOC) 304, 566568

Dutch Maiden 281

Dutch Republic 272, 300, 398, 563, 567, 569, 700, 793, 796, 798, 827, 861862, 867, 919, 924925

Dutch Revolt 270, 567, 924. See also Eighty Years’ War

Dutch War 334, 368, 567

Eastern Question 115, 122, 377

East Germany 90, 158, 357, 423, 458, 521, 589, 621, 722. See also German Democratic Republic (GDR)

Edison, Thomas A. 447

Eighty Years’ War 696. See also Dutch Revolt

Einstein, Albert 420, 452

Eisenhüttenstadt 162

electricity 442443, 445, 449, 451, 522, 542543, 551, 574, 576, 580, 641, 650, 652, 686, 831, 870, 873

Eliot, George 837

Elizabeth I 300, 463, 923

Elizabeth of Russia 370

Engels, Friedrich 21, 150, 252, 477, 611, 618, 675676, 742, 745, 747

England xvixvii, 9, 11, 20, 66, 71, 7677, 80, 136138, 150, 168169, 179, 185, 203, 205, 212213, 223, 232, 234, 244245, 252, 256, 266267, 269270, 272, 277, 281, 299301, 320, 329331, 334335, 346, 365367, 369, 395, 398, 400401, 407, 409410, 436439, 463, 469, 470, 475, 478, 500, 502, 511, 530531, 533536, 553, 563, 565, 567568, 574, 578, 600602, 610611, 618, 628, 630631, 633634, 638639, 642, 644, 660662, 665, 673, 675, 687, 696, 700, 711, 729730, 732, 734, 738, 741, 749, 771772, 785786, 794795, 803, 821, 823825, 828, 856, 859, 867, 872, 888893, 898, 919, 922924, 931, 936. See also Great Britain

English Civil War 270, 395, 400, 700

English Poor Law 478

Enlightenment 6, 10, 15, 18, 40, 42, 103, 110, 112113, 172, 313, 333, 336, 371, 377, 409, 433, 453, 466, 501, 503, 574, 609, 703, 706707, 709, 711, 727, 731, 734, 737738, 744, 770, 795, 797, 804, 827, 927, 948

Entente Cordiale 354

environmentalism 423424, 547, 553557

Erasmus of Rotterdam 9, 497498, 502503, 698, 728

Essen 476, 500

Estonia 55, 195, 286288, 664, 685

ethnic cleansing 78, 85, 189, 191, 257, 289, 357

European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) 588, 782

European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) 31, 588, 782

European Community (EC) 3132, 5455, 195, 387388, 948

European Council for Nuclear Research (CERN) 453, 456, 520

European Economic Community (EEC) 289, 384, 588, 590, 649651, 782

European Free Trade Association (EFTA) 591

European integration 3132, 60, 99, 285, 289290, 293, 322323, 387, 520, 591, 787, 813, 948949

European Recovery Program (ERP) 30, 586. See also Marshall Plan

European single market 591

European Space Agency 456

European Union (EU) xvi, 2627, 3233, 5456, 58, 93, 190, 195197, 225, 290, 326, 520, 590, 622, 649, 651, 682, 686, 745, 781782, 784, 947948

Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA) 356, 419

Exoticism 314

Expedition of the Thousand 346

Expressionism 843, 846

factory 87, 90, 92, 150, 211, 221, 246, 252253, 386, 437, 446447, 451, 454455, 477478, 480, 542543, 551, 559, 564565, 568, 573574, 578, 606, 641, 644, 651, 669, 673675, 681682, 686, 802, 804, 832, 909

Fanon, Frantz 325

fascism 221222, 258, 291292, 318, 353354, 384385, 417418, 423, 483, 749750, 811, 814, 850, 878

February Revolution 716, 751. See also Russian Revolution

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) 356

Federal Republic of Germany xvixvii, 911, 1516, 1821, 2630, 38, 40, 45, 4748, 5051, 54, 56, 5859, 6768, 70, 7578, 8083, 8690, 111113, 115, 120, 124126, 128, 140, 150, 156158, 162, 167170, 173, 178182, 184185, 190, 192193, 195, 212, 214, 222226, 245, 252253, 255, 269, 272, 276282, 286289, 291, 299, 304, 313, 318319, 321, 331, 341, 343, 345347, 352354, 356, 366368, 378, 384386, 389390, 396400, 408, 411, 416418, 422, 445448, 452, 455, 457, 465466, 477478, 480, 487488, 490491, 499501, 504, 508, 510511, 513, 518519, 521523, 534, 544546, 553554, 569570, 574575, 578579, 583, 590, 607, 609, 611, 617618, 620622, 628, 630, 632, 639, 650, 675, 677, 679680, 684, 687, 696, 702, 711, 718, 721, 730, 737738, 742743, 749751, 753, 760, 766767, 771772, 781782, 784, 786, 791, 794795, 800801, 807, 810812, 824, 826, 838839, 843844, 846847, 849, 857, 859, 866867, 870, 872, 877882, 889, 901, 903, 913, 921922, 925, 930931, 934, 945946. See also West Germany

Feltre, Vittorino da 498

feminism 215, 221, 224225, 248, 254256, 384, 407, 419, 421, 424, 478, 489, 740, 748, 754

Fénelon, François 727, 731

Ferdinand I 343344

Ferdinand VII 340

Ferro, António 879

Filmer, Robert 234, 730

Filonov, Pavel 842

fin-de-siècle 184, 485, 744, 747, 937

Finland 31, 46, 48, 55, 157, 173, 191, 254, 277, 286287, 289, 312, 385, 408, 786, 902

First International 21, 346, 347, 410, 411, 413, 609. See also International Workingmen’s Association

First World War 20, 2527, 30, 51, 5354, 83, 86, 88, 92, 116, 122, 124, 126, 128, 146, 155157, 192, 196, 221222, 251252, 254258, 278, 285286, 292, 312, 348, 353, 358359, 367, 369, 373, 375376, 378, 380, 383384, 386, 389, 408, 416, 441, 446, 451452, 456, 479, 483484, 487, 489, 517518, 520, 522, 549, 580, 583584, 605, 607609, 616, 619, 639, 644, 647648, 650652, 655, 676, 680, 683684, 717, 781782, 808809, 841, 850, 876, 909910, 940, 944

fiscal-military state 267, 367368

five-year plan 585, 651

Florence 476, 796, 870, 893

Flour War 400

Fluxus 848

Fordism 257, 550, 649, 679680, 688

Fortress Europe 56, 93

Fourier, Charles 224, 476477, 741, 832833

Fourth Anglo-Dutch War 334

Foxe, John 923924

France xvii, 9, 11, 1522, 27, 2930, 3843, 4548, 5051, 54, 56, 5960, 6667, 7172, 7578, 83, 8788, 9093, 102104, 114115, 122123, 127, 136, 138140, 144, 149, 157, 159, 168, 172, 178180, 185, 190, 195, 203, 211212, 223225, 231234, 236238, 245247, 252, 255, 257, 266, 268269, 275, 277, 279280, 286, 289, 307308, 319324, 329331, 333337, 339342, 345347, 351352, 355, 358, 363371, 374377, 379, 386389, 395, 398, 400403, 405407, 411412, 417421, 437438, 441, 443446, 448, 452, 458, 469470, 475478, 487489, 491, 500, 503504, 508, 510, 514, 518519, 522523, 530, 535536, 540541, 545, 551, 575, 578579, 583, 586588, 610, 612, 620, 628633, 639, 643, 653, 663, 666, 671, 675676, 679, 682, 684685, 687, 696697, 699700, 705712, 715716, 723, 729734, 737740, 742744, 749, 753, 759764, 766768, 770773, 781782, 785, 803805, 807, 810811, 814, 824, 827, 831834, 836837, 839, 841, 846, 848849, 858859, 861862, 865, 867870, 872, 880882, 888889, 892893, 899, 902903, 905, 908, 913914, 929937, 939, 942, 945

Francis I 363, 760

Francke, August Hermann 465

Franco, Francisco 128, 354, 387, 418, 616, 719720, 723, 781, 879

Franco-Prussian War 78, 346, 375, 378, 478, 489, 833

Frankfurt Assembly 343

Frankfurt School 456, 876, 880

Franz Ferdinand 348

Franz Joseph I 344, 409

Frederick II 369, 732

Frederick V 367

Frederick William II 334

Frederick William IV 343

freedom 16, 1819, 21, 27, 32, 67, 72, 85, 181, 224226, 302303, 344, 354, 384, 400, 420, 422423, 447, 491, 524, 573574, 588, 601602, 659, 664665, 670, 675676, 705708, 716, 719721, 727, 729730, 732, 734, 739742, 760, 763, 811, 827, 832, 838, 845846, 850, 865, 870, 897898, 908909, 915, 924, 932933, 946

free trade 26, 116, 376, 448, 573, 575, 591, 602, 731

French Empire 1516, 21, 308, 321, 443

French Revolution xvii, 15, 22, 45, 47, 7677, 172, 178, 211212, 231233, 333337, 351352, 370, 395, 401403, 405, 407, 412, 441, 541, 631, 639, 663, 671, 705707, 709, 711712, 737739, 742, 744, 763, 805, 833, 862, 872, 929, 931, 937, 939

French Revolutionary Wars 47

Freud, Sigmund 224, 453, 846, 849

Fronde 331, 395, 761

Galicia 47, 76, 86, 182, 184, 271, 289, 510, 749

Garden City movement 474476, 485

Garibaldi, Giuseppe 77, 345346, 708

Gaulle, Charles de 324

Gdańsk 53, 58. See also Danzig

General Agreement on Trades and Tariffs (GATT) 591

Generation X 808

Generation Z 808

Geneva 21, 41, 333, 402, 453, 695

Geneva Conventions 17, 355, 376

Genevan Revolution 333

genocide 78, 85, 189, 191, 195196, 257, 353, 355, 357, 374, 390, 452, 457, 718, 723, 752, 947

German Customs Union 50, 280, 575

German Democratic Republic (GDR) 319, 422, 423, 490, 554, 617, 721, 753, 783, 810, 881. See also East Germany

German Empire 45, 47, 54, 59, 8788, 180, 279, 286, 345, 743

globalisation 85, 196, 292293, 358, 421, 424, 458, 487, 491492, 523, 551, 555556, 573, 579581, 590591, 605, 615, 622623, 630, 644, 649, 654, 682, 808, 848, 880, 943, 946

Global South 162, 323, 325, 387, 621, 679, 688

Glorious Revolution 269, 329, 331

Gobineau, Arthur de 744

Godin, André 832

Gomarus, Franciscus 700

Gorbachev, Mikhail 721, 723, 753

Gouges, Olympe de 407

Grande Armée 78, 352

Graunt, John 535

Great Britain xvixvii, 26, 3132, 5051, 7173, 75, 81, 83, 85, 9194, 112, 114116, 126, 135, 138139, 146, 150, 159, 179, 190, 244245, 247248, 255256, 272, 279, 286, 298, 300, 304, 307311, 314, 317, 319, 321324, 334335, 341, 344, 346347, 351, 369371, 377, 380, 384, 406, 408411, 413, 418, 435, 443445, 476477, 487489, 492, 522523, 536, 543545, 571, 575, 577579, 602, 638, 641, 652653, 666667, 672, 675676, 680, 687, 759, 769771, 781, 805, 811, 814, 832833, 837, 866, 872, 880881, 891, 899, 901, 903, 908, 931, 939. See also United Kingdom; See also England

Great Depression 29, 157, 455456, 553, 583584, 616, 648, 650, 652, 684

Greatest Generation 808

Great Famine 88, 140

Great Fire of London 535

Great Northern War 6, 8

Greece 6, 9, 12, 1617, 22, 31, 5455, 67, 7879, 88, 100101, 127, 158, 169, 190, 253, 255, 257, 277, 279, 287, 289, 291, 297, 340341, 355, 366, 376, 385, 410, 418419, 498499, 502504, 508, 579, 586, 702, 709, 715, 717718, 821822, 838, 888, 902

Greek Civil War 289

Greek War of Independence 22, 340, 376

Gregory XVI 708

Grotius, Hugo 9, 730, 924

guest workers 91, 158, 195, 289, 490, 681, 785

Guevara, Che 325, 419

guilds 171, 204, 208, 211, 232, 234235, 268270, 396397, 399, 402, 436438, 479, 498, 573574, 581, 599, 609, 630632, 662, 738, 766, 824

Guise Familistère 477, 832

Guizot, François 16, 739740

Gulag 680, 845

gunboat diplomacy 307, 446

Gutenberg, Johannes 433, 439, 857858, 867

Haakon VII 279

Habsburg Empire 6, 8, 1011, 18, 25, 28, 4041, 45, 47, 50, 59, 70, 77, 7980, 83, 102, 167, 169, 172, 178, 180181, 183, 277, 280281, 286287, 298, 300, 340, 343, 345, 364, 366367, 400, 408409, 435, 499, 501502, 510, 512514, 567, 607, 701702, 770, 773, 783784. See also Austria-Hungary

Habsburg Monarchy 6, 28, 7980, 83, 178, 180181, 183, 287, 409, 435, 510, 783

Haeckel, Ernst 553

Hague Convention 353, 940

Hague Peace Conferences 376

Haitian Revolution 238, 304, 308, 335336, 374

Hájek, Václav 920922

Hanseatic League 297, 569

Haussmann, Georges-Eugène 476, 485, 899, 932

Havas, Charles-Louis 870

Hegel, Georg W. F. 113, 120, 866

Heine, Heinrich 77

Helsinki Accords 388

Helvétius, Anne-Catherine 738

Hemingway, Ernest 354

Henry VIII 398, 469, 892, 923

Hen War 332

Herder, Johann Gottfried 18, 738

Herites, František 110

Herodotus 101

Herzen, Aleksandr 77

Hindenburg, Paul von 879

hippies 620, 849

Hitler, Adolf 29, 54, 87, 224, 489, 810, 879

Hobbes, Thomas 727, 730

Holocaust 79, 88, 289, 452, 715, 718, 751, 945946, 948949

Holodomor 88

Holy Alliance 15, 19, 376, 707

Holy League 365

Holy Roman Empire 8, 11, 16, 38, 46, 66, 170, 204, 297298, 364, 367369, 396, 437438, 499, 569, 696, 858, 889, 925926

homosexuality 160, 224225, 255, 419, 751

Horthy, Miklós 417

Howard, Ebenezer 474475

Hugo, Victor 18, 20, 77, 280, 378, 837, 933

Huguenots 6667, 170, 329, 365, 438, 470, 700

humanism 9, 11, 111, 236, 468469, 497498, 500, 502504, 511, 597, 634, 698, 728, 792, 794, 798, 821, 824, 894, 919920, 926

humanitarianism 17, 20, 30, 120, 122, 224, 322, 352353, 355, 384, 466

human rights 56, 122, 239, 288, 292293, 322, 324, 353, 356, 379, 409, 421, 424, 556557, 706708, 737738, 744, 897, 913

Hume, David 732

Hungarian Revolution 30, 344, 422

Hungary xvii, 6, 8, 10, 18, 28, 30, 32, 42, 50, 5556, 6970, 7677, 81, 86, 8890, 102, 149, 156, 159, 161, 172, 181182, 184185, 190195, 214, 253, 256, 277278, 286289, 291, 313, 318319, 321, 325, 331, 343344, 347, 358, 385387, 400, 409, 417, 420, 422424, 475, 499, 512513, 521, 559, 570, 575, 579, 583, 609, 617, 621, 652, 664, 670, 701702, 717, 721722, 753754, 773, 800801, 807, 870, 902, 944

Hus, Jan 920

Hussites 920, 922, 945

Hussite Wars 926

Huxley, Aldous 456

Huygens, Christiaan 454, 535

hygiene 144, 148, 150151, 442443, 451, 467, 470, 476, 480, 533, 536, 544, 673

Iberian Peninsula 12, 37, 39, 6869, 72, 74, 99, 171, 237, 271, 502, 534, 587, 695696, 700, 772, 875

Iceland 136, 180, 586, 902, 941

Ignatius of Loyola 698

imperialism 10, 45, 4951, 57, 7576, 80, 83, 86, 91, 93, 103104, 112, 114117, 120, 123, 126128, 172, 178, 180, 182, 184, 210, 237, 248, 267, 271, 281, 286287, 297305, 307315, 317321, 326, 353, 355356, 376, 379380, 409, 419420, 435, 442, 446, 449, 489, 502, 512, 539540, 542, 545546, 575576, 650, 676, 743744, 750, 754, 767, 771, 773775, 781, 804, 811, 813, 930, 933

impressionism 831, 834837, 839

India 1012, 51, 72, 83, 93, 105, 111, 114115, 128, 298299, 303304, 307, 309311, 314, 320322, 324, 370, 374, 458, 545, 563564, 567568, 571, 578579, 633, 642, 666, 771, 872, 893

Indian National Congress 321

Indian Rebellion 307, 311, 314

Indirect Rule 319

individualism 156, 160, 207, 400, 485, 511, 730, 734, 744, 754, 827828, 837

Indochina War 324

Indonesia 10, 310, 322, 353, 355, 509, 682

industrialisation 20, 22, 27, 80, 141, 143, 145, 150151, 155, 206, 211, 242243, 246, 251, 255, 257, 309, 341, 347, 410411, 417, 431, 437, 439440, 443444, 452, 455, 457458, 463, 470, 473, 475479, 481, 484, 486, 523, 529, 534, 539, 543547, 549550, 552, 554555, 557, 563, 573576, 578580, 585, 590, 596, 602, 605607, 611, 615617, 619, 627, 637642, 644, 669, 672674, 677, 682, 686, 705, 712, 752, 772, 776, 780, 785, 801803, 806, 832, 865, 867, 905, 909, 911, 935, 939

industrial revolution 4950, 113, 135, 150, 152, 209, 211, 221, 437439, 445, 447, 508, 514, 540, 543, 545, 547, 605606, 611, 627628, 638639, 642, 661, 670, 672, 706, 799

industrious revolution 207, 628, 642, 662

infrastructure 49, 51, 59, 76, 80, 269, 374375, 431432, 434436, 439, 445446, 451, 455458, 470, 480, 502, 518, 520, 531, 534, 549, 554, 573, 575, 586, 752, 769776, 913, 940

Innocent X 700

insurance 292, 478480, 487488, 535, 575577, 587, 609, 612, 642, 644, 676, 679, 683686, 743

Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (IMRO) 355

International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) 17

International Federation of Trade Unions (IFTU) 28

International Labour Organization (ILO) 31, 588

International Monetary Fund 324

International Peace Congress 20, 377

International Research Council (IRC) 518

International Workingmen’s Association 21, 78, 410. See also First International

Investment Fund for Economic and Social Development 321

Ireland 38, 50, 54, 8182, 140, 179, 190, 225, 244245, 286287, 298, 300, 333334, 344, 346347, 356, 401, 406, 530, 586, 685, 699, 715, 827, 892893

Irish Famine 50, 140

Irish Question 347

Irish Republican Army (IRA) 356

Irish Volunteers 334

Iron Curtain 3031, 5657, 93, 155156, 158, 161, 289, 387, 453, 456, 458, 483, 491492, 521, 524, 587, 590, 617, 649, 653, 721, 781, 783, 809, 946

Isabella I 364, 698

Isabella II 77, 341, 542

Islam 25, 39, 41, 6873, 78, 102103, 116, 168, 171, 190, 195, 243, 257, 300, 314, 320321, 323, 357358, 364, 366, 598, 695696, 698, 701, 708, 715, 718, 765767, 775, 781, 804

Istanbul 22, 66, 69, 475, 708, 718, 775, 861

Italian War 17, 345

Italy xvi, xviii, 9, 11, 1719, 31, 38, 4749, 54, 56, 66, 71, 7678, 80, 83, 8788, 90, 92, 104, 127, 136, 140, 156, 168, 170171, 178179, 190, 195, 203, 206, 222223, 253, 255, 257, 266, 269271, 276277, 279, 287289, 291, 321, 336, 340341, 345347, 354356, 364366, 374, 376377, 385, 396, 400, 402, 410412, 417, 419420, 436439, 446, 457, 469, 490, 498499, 501502, 504, 556, 569, 586588, 607, 609, 611, 628, 630632, 639, 660, 684, 686687, 695, 708, 749750, 753, 763, 770772, 785, 787, 792, 810812, 814, 824, 838, 856, 858, 861, 870, 877882, 888890, 893, 903, 905, 945

Ivan III 265

Ivan IV 7, 266, 300, 764765, 794

Jahn, Friedrich Ludwig 901

James I 367

James II 891

James IV 891

Jan II Kazimierz Wasa 332

Jansen, Cornelius 699700, 711

Japan 26, 109, 114, 116, 119, 124, 144, 307, 317, 321, 356, 442, 458, 523, 564, 774, 811, 948

jazz 126127, 810811, 881

Jevons, William Stanley 544

John Bull 281

John Paul II 423, 719, 722

joint-stock company 568, 573, 577, 641642

Joseph II 172, 181, 334, 400, 501

journalism 135, 215, 408, 556, 700, 833, 871

Judaism 7, 910, 51, 54, 6668, 7273, 7879, 82, 8790, 126, 157158, 167174, 178, 184185, 190, 192193, 196197, 223, 237, 243245, 249, 257, 287289, 386, 452, 464, 469, 504, 519, 598, 695696, 698, 700701, 705, 708709, 715716, 718, 749, 751752, 767, 804, 879, 930, 945946

Juglar, Clement 639

July Revolution 739

Kandinsky, Wassily 842843, 846

Kant, Immanuel 18, 169, 371, 377, 503504, 737

Kassák, Lajos 845

Kdyně 57

Kett’s Rebellion 601

Keynes, John Maynard 488, 648

Khrushchev, Nikita 387, 521, 653, 721, 753

Kiel Mutiny 416

Kingdom of Poland-Lithuania 38. See also Poland-Lithuania

Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes 54

Kipling, Rudyard 112, 310

Koch, Robert 443, 508

Kohl, Helmut 59

Kondratiev, Nikolai 639, 648

Kościuszko, Tadeusz 332

Kossuth, Lajos 77, 344, 421422

Kracauer, Siegfried 876

Kraków 476, 700

Kropotkin, Pyotr 77, 351

Kun, Bela 417

Kundera, Milan 32

Labadie, Jean de 827

labour rights 405

Lacordaire, Henri-Dominique 711

Lamennais, Félicité Robert de 707708

Larionov, Mikhail 842

Lassalle, Ferdinand 480

Latin America 127129, 162, 287, 289, 317, 419, 442443, 448, 458, 776, 780, 911

Latvia 55, 131, 195, 286288, 664

Laud, William 700

Lauterbach, Johann 8, 13

Lavoisier, Antoine de 442, 540

League of Nations 2627, 89, 192, 255, 288, 321, 355, 384, 554, 940

Lebensraum 29, 751

Le Corbusier 455

Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm 10, 500

Lemberg 58, 183, 184. See also Lviv

Lemonnier, Charles 2021

Lenin, Vladimir 27, 253, 290, 292, 321, 352, 384, 619, 621, 716, 751, 842

Leopold I 279, 369

Leopold II 308, 320

Leo XIII 574

LGBT+ 220, 224226, 882

liberalism 1516, 1819, 22, 7677, 116, 126, 158, 243, 245, 248, 341, 344, 353, 376, 400401, 405, 416, 420, 487, 573574, 610, 675676, 686, 707, 709, 712, 730732, 737744, 747749, 753, 755, 845, 932933

liberty 30, 77, 231232, 248, 333, 399400, 402, 412, 417, 707, 729, 731732, 738740, 827

Lieber Code 376

Liebig, Justus von 445, 508, 544

Liguori, Alphonsus 711

Linnaeus, Carl 168, 539540

Lipsius, Justus 9, 597598

Lisbon 72, 534, 564565

Lister, Joseph 443

List, Friedrich 280, 878

Lithuania 7, 3738, 55, 66, 167, 169170, 173174, 195, 267, 279, 286287, 332, 365, 502, 569570, 664, 684, 764

Livingstone, David 311

Locke, John 234, 730, 732733, 738, 763, 795

London 18, 21, 78, 82, 150, 203, 215, 245, 270, 280, 311, 329, 346, 377, 389, 407, 409, 411, 418, 445, 465, 474475, 487, 530, 535, 543544, 554, 568, 580581, 700, 732, 776, 782, 785, 810, 813, 824, 837, 861, 866, 868, 870, 872, 900, 902, 911, 935936

London Missionary Society 311

Long Depression 639, 644

Long War 70

Lost Generation 479, 808809

Louis II 70

Louis Napoleon 77, 345. See also Napoleon III

Louis Philippe d’Orléans 341

Louis XI 760

Louis XIII 761

Louis XIV 66, 72, 368369, 467, 727, 761

Louis XV 369

Louis XVI 233, 335

Louis XVIII 933

Low Countries 47, 136, 365, 367, 396398, 475, 530, 602, 628, 630, 632, 660662, 698, 700, 749, 888889, 892. See also Netherlands

Lubań 926

Lubomirski, Jerzy 332

Luddism 411, 673, 675

Lugard, Frederick 319

Lumière brothers 447, 869

Lutheranism 6667, 365, 423, 464465, 499, 501, 574, 695696, 701702, 715716, 919, 921, 926

Luther, Martin 67, 397, 464, 695, 728, 794, 822, 858

Luxembourg 21, 27, 47, 487, 586, 588, 784, 881

Lviv 58, 183184

Lwów 58, 183184. See also Lviv

Lyell, Charles 540

Maastricht Treaty 32, 55

Mably, Gabriel Bonnot de 734

Macedo, António de Sousa de 12

Mackinder, Halford 781782

Madrid 76, 419, 502, 542, 776, 870

Mainz 38, 501

Maistre, Joseph de 1516

Malevich, Kazimir 842, 845

Malta 55, 365366

Malthusianism 86, 137, 141, 146147, 152, 470, 638, 644, 662

Malthusian trap 146147, 152, 638, 644, 662

Malthus, Thomas 135, 137, 146, 152, 470, 544, 610, 638

managerialisation 587

Manet, Édouard 834835

Mannheim, Karl 797, 807

Mano Negra 347

manorial system 136, 303, 399, 401402, 408, 541, 569570, 600

Manuel I 104, 565

Manuzio, Aldo 9

Marconi, Guglielmo 447

Mariana, Juan de 729

Marianne 280, 934

Maria Theresa 172, 369, 501, 804

Marinetti, Filippo 878

Marshall Plan 3031, 289, 550, 585589, 649, 782783. See also European Recovery Program (ERP)

Marxism 194, 252, 290, 292, 333, 347, 364, 453, 491492, 611, 618, 620621, 720, 741744, 747, 749, 751, 753, 755, 879880

Marx, Karl 21, 77, 252, 346, 411, 477, 574, 607, 610611, 618, 620, 675676, 712, 742, 745, 747, 751, 753, 755, 849, 898

Mary I 923

Masaryk, Tomáš Garrigue 26

mass media 555, 748, 853, 855, 857, 862863, 865866, 871, 874877, 880, 883

Matisse, Henri 845

Maurice of Orange-Nassau 366

May Fourth Movement 124

May, Karl 111

Mazarin, Jules 331

Mazzini, Giuseppe 1820, 7778, 345, 410, 708

McLuhan, Marshall 857858, 877

mechanisation 221, 380, 437, 445, 456, 549550, 637638, 640641, 673, 871

Medici, Alessandro de’ 893

Mediterranean Sea 12, 17, 22, 39, 55, 69, 99, 101102, 115, 271, 340, 365366, 434, 531, 534, 542, 564, 567, 633, 666, 750, 781, 783, 872, 913

Melanchthon, Philipp 499

Mendel, Gregor 442, 453, 540

Mensheviks 751

Mercado, Tomás de 597

mercantilism 595596, 600, 602

Methodism 712, 825

Metternich, Klemens von 340, 343

Mexia, Pedro 792

Mexico 68, 100101, 105, 299, 301, 566

Michelet, Jules 933

Michurin, Ivan V. 553

Mickiewicz, Adam 77, 280

Middle Ages 6, 8, 20, 29, 3839, 66, 99, 137, 139140, 171, 173, 193, 204, 232, 234, 271, 330, 408, 436, 464, 467, 530, 532, 564, 569, 598, 630, 659660, 663665, 701, 711, 734, 764, 794, 860, 888, 890891, 920, 926

middle class 129, 149, 204, 211, 216, 243244, 248, 256, 334, 340, 343, 358, 377, 398, 406408, 436, 508, 544, 546, 577, 606, 616617, 620, 623, 629, 642, 652, 674, 676, 687, 742, 748749, 802, 806, 809, 812, 880, 900, 903, 914

Middle East 55, 71, 93, 97, 99, 103, 109, 114116, 119, 122123, 358, 374, 379, 533, 893

Middle Passage 308

Mikhail I 332

millennials 808

Mill, Harriet Taylor 740, 743

Mill, John Stuart 408, 574, 610611, 740, 743

Milton, John 729

Mindszenty, József 721

Minh, Ho Chi 419

Mirabeau, Victor Riqueti de 731, 764

missionaries 9, 99100, 103104, 168, 173, 244, 303, 311312, 465466, 699

Mitteleuropa 19, 28, 33

modernisation 114, 124, 127, 149, 290, 292, 343, 387, 405, 412, 477, 551, 557, 587, 649, 651, 673, 707, 719, 774, 780, 866, 908, 911, 935, 939

modernity 65, 113, 124125, 280, 291, 308309, 364, 431, 443444, 456, 473, 481, 483, 705706, 712, 731, 769, 774, 786, 845846, 897, 905, 909, 911, 915, 931, 937

Moldavia 69, 172, 664

Molina, Luis de 700

Moluccan Youths 356

Mondrian, Piet 846

Monet, Claude 834836

Monnet, Jean 488

Montaigne, Michel de 104

Montesquieu 103, 732, 738, 763

moral economy 400, 536, 601, 618

Moravia 80, 343, 442, 469, 500, 541, 791, 827, 920, 931

Mor Danmark 281

More, Thomas 469, 502, 821825, 828

Morris, William 833

Moscow 265266, 271, 300, 454, 456, 475, 485, 717, 752, 764767, 773774, 794, 796, 811, 941

Mosley, Oswald 418

Mother Russia 281

Motín de Esquilache 400

Mozambique 92, 159, 323, 325

multiculturalism 288289, 293, 304

Munich Agreement 56

Münster, Sebastian 11

Mussolini, Benito 92, 123, 253, 417, 750, 878

Nansen, Fridtjof 89

Napoleon Bonaparte 1516, 19, 46, 50, 7778, 113, 115, 340, 352, 370, 374, 402, 706, 716, 738739, 801

Napoleonic Wars 4547, 49, 51, 77, 79, 115, 277, 339, 351, 371, 373374, 376377, 389, 610, 901, 930

Napoleon III 19, 345346, 743, 870, 899900. See also Louis Napoleon

Nasser, Gamal Abdel 123

nationalism 15, 1819, 2223, 26, 29, 4649, 76, 78, 120, 122123, 126, 128, 158, 167, 174, 178, 181186, 189, 191, 195197, 215, 244245, 263, 265, 271, 275276, 278, 281282, 285289, 292293, 315, 321, 345, 348, 357358, 385, 401, 405, 417, 422, 452, 457, 489490, 513514, 518, 546, 708709, 712, 717, 738, 744, 747748, 750751, 786, 873, 878879, 897, 901, 905906, 922, 931, 934, 937, 939

National Liberation Front 356

National Socialism 29, 126, 158, 223, 245, 257, 389, 423, 452, 483, 519, 749752, 811, 878, 881, 945

Naumann, Friedrich 28

Nazi Germany 2930, 33, 54, 56, 5859, 88, 157158, 193, 224, 255, 257258, 289, 318, 354, 389, 418, 452, 485, 489, 519520, 680, 717, 750752, 815, 845, 875, 878879, 901, 945946. See also Third Reich

neoliberalism 293, 486, 491492, 523, 617, 621622, 649, 685686, 749, 754755

Netherlands xvxviii, 9, 1112, 47, 67, 71, 75, 7778, 8283, 87, 9092, 115, 123, 127, 148149, 157, 159, 170, 180, 195, 205206, 225226, 252, 270272, 277, 279, 281282, 289, 298300, 304305, 307310, 322, 324, 330331, 333335, 337, 341, 356, 365369, 371, 374, 379, 396, 398, 402, 405, 411, 434, 438, 491, 499500, 503, 508509, 511, 518, 522, 530532, 535, 563, 565, 567569, 578, 586588, 616, 630, 633634, 639, 660, 662, 666, 671, 681, 696, 699700, 707, 730, 770, 772, 793, 796797, 798, 812, 824, 826827, 846, 849, 861862, 867, 889, 891892, 903, 911912, 919, 924925. See also Low Countries

Newbery, John 795

New Economic Mechanism 652

New Imperialism 307

New Left 325, 419420, 424, 620621, 849

Newton, John 72, 454, 500, 503504, 533

New World 12, 68, 7374, 81, 105, 111112, 237238, 304, 308, 531, 565, 578

Nietzsche, Friedrich 453, 838, 849

nobility 12, 70, 72, 79, 169, 182, 202, 233, 236, 268269, 303, 332, 334, 365366, 400, 465, 607, 642, 702, 729, 760761, 763, 766, 867, 887, 891893

North America 18, 81, 300, 302, 304, 324, 370, 374, 401, 448, 457458, 485, 584, 607, 666, 762, 881

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 3031, 357, 387388, 520, 782

North Sea 81, 607, 638, 661662

Norway xvii, 47, 49, 55, 89, 158, 173174, 180, 190, 258, 267, 277, 279, 311, 340, 507, 586, 667, 902

Novalis 15

Nové Hrady 57

Nuremberg Tribunals 353, 355

Occident 18, 29, 31

O’Connell, Daniel 344

O’Connor, Fearghus 344

October Revolution 252, 277, 751. See also Russian Revolution

oil crisis 93, 123, 556, 583, 588, 649, 684, 686

Old Continent 8, 110, 741

Old World 105, 110111, 566

Opium Wars 114

Orangemen 334

ordoliberalism 587

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 31, 520, 523, 588, 685

Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) 31, 588589

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) 521

Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) 123

Orient 22, 103, 124, 129, 642

Oriental Crisis 22

Orientalism 781, 784785

Orthodox Christianity 67, 190, 708, 715716

Orthodox Church 266, 271, 332, 695, 716717, 723

Otto I 279

Ottoman Empire 6, 8, 10, 12, 17, 22, 25, 39, 4142, 45, 47, 59, 6667, 6972, 79, 99, 101103, 105106, 115116, 122, 140, 167171, 180181, 191192, 213214, 256257, 277, 286, 298, 300, 313, 318, 331, 340341, 344, 364366, 368, 376377, 435, 442, 575, 665666, 701, 708709, 717718, 759, 770, 775776, 784, 804

Oviedo, Fernando González de 101

Owen, Robert 476477, 741, 832

Pacific Ocean 11, 299, 324, 774

Paine, Thomas 734

Palacký, František 931

Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK) 127

Pan-Slavic Congress 343

Pareto, Vilfredo 611

Paris 20, 22, 50, 7677, 86, 203, 233, 247248, 261, 292, 344, 354, 370, 376, 378, 388389, 400402, 418, 420, 445, 448, 453, 475476, 485, 487, 519, 542, 546, 555, 581, 588, 643, 676, 706, 711, 731, 749, 763, 776, 785, 810, 824, 833834, 837, 849, 868870, 881, 897, 899900, 903, 911, 932933, 936, 943

Paris Commune 76, 78, 346347, 676, 831, 833

Paris Peace Treaties 124, 288

Parsons, Charles 445

Pasteur, Louis 443, 508

paternalism 121, 293, 320, 476477, 674

patriotism 26, 42, 179, 215, 221, 255, 265, 276, 282, 345, 348, 370, 385, 388, 717, 804805, 901, 921, 926, 931, 934, 937

Patriots 334

Paul VI 720

Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle 369

Peace of Augsburg 365, 396, 696

Peace of Münster 924

Peace of Utrecht 369

Peasants’ War 397, 602

perestroika 721, 753, 809

Perón, Juan Domingo 128

Perraudin, Jean-Pierre 540

Peru 68, 100, 301, 566

Peter I 6, 797, 892

Peter III 332, 370

Petty, William 470

philhellenism 341, 410

Philip II 11, 330, 365366, 398, 565, 699, 924

Philip III 11, 69

Picasso, Pablo 354, 836, 845

Pius II 106, 922

Pius IX 345

plague 140, 155, 530, 543, 600. See also Black Death

Pliny 101, 105

Poland xvi, xviii, 78, 10, 1819, 28, 3738, 47, 49, 51, 5355, 5859, 66, 69, 7677, 80, 83, 8790, 138, 158162, 167170, 173174, 179, 182, 184, 191193, 195, 225, 253, 267, 278280, 286289, 291, 313, 318, 332, 341, 346, 354, 365, 377, 387, 411, 417, 422423, 502, 521, 554, 569570, 589, 617, 620621, 652, 660, 686, 707, 719, 721723, 749, 753, 764, 785, 837, 925926, 931, 946947

Poland-Lithuania 3738, 167, 169170, 173174, 267, 279, 332, 365, 502, 569570, 764. See also Kingdom of Poland-Lithuania

Polish Crisis 422

Polish War of Succession. See War of the Polish Succession

pollution 150, 457, 543544, 546547, 549550, 553557, 833

Portbou 58

Portugal 55, 68, 76, 9092, 104, 115, 120, 128, 159, 171, 195, 211, 255, 266, 291, 299, 304, 307, 323, 331, 340341, 365, 385, 387, 418419, 508, 565, 586, 633, 715, 868, 879

Portuguese 1112, 68, 7273, 7677, 90, 92, 99, 104, 127, 237, 257, 271, 298300, 302304, 323, 331, 364366, 418419, 534, 563568, 666, 772

Portuguese Empire 72, 298299

Potsdam Conference 54, 89

Poznań Uprising 422

Prague 10, 184, 310, 342343, 356, 387, 400, 422, 444, 513, 519, 620, 652, 721, 753754, 783, 786, 930932

Prague Spring 356, 387, 422, 620, 721, 753754

Praxis Circle 620

professionalisation 266, 268, 441, 510512, 514, 517518, 523, 532, 557, 894, 897, 902, 904

Protestantism 6668, 78, 169170, 173, 180, 190, 204, 206, 212, 244, 299, 311, 331, 334, 367, 371, 398, 464, 466, 498500, 601, 695703, 705707, 711, 715, 729, 731, 749, 767, 804, 821822, 824825, 858, 867, 919920, 923924, 926

Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph 19, 741

Proust, Marcel 837

Provos 812, 849

Prussia 15, 17, 19, 21, 54, 7879, 86, 136, 170, 180, 185, 193, 211212, 277, 279, 313, 332, 334335, 340, 343, 345346, 369371, 374375, 378, 389, 398, 408, 438, 445, 465, 478, 489, 510, 544, 570, 575, 580, 609, 707, 732, 770, 833

Ptolemy 101, 792

von Pufendorf, Samuel 730

Pugachev, Emelyan 332, 400

Pyrenees 38, 40, 42, 48, 340

Quad, Matthias 11

Quakers 67, 700, 712, 825

Quattrocento 628

Quesnay, François 731

racism 29, 86, 105, 121, 157, 171, 174, 191, 236238, 245, 249, 287, 304, 314, 386, 452, 754, 812, 815, 881, 912

radicalisation 292, 335, 354357, 420, 844

railways 65, 75, 80, 83, 151, 417, 446, 448449, 475, 576577, 579, 587, 672, 769776, 870, 908

Raleigh, Walter 300

rationalisation 312, 455456, 463464, 471, 846, 898

Reagan, Ronald 491, 621, 722, 754

Rebellion of Granada 69

Reconquista 39, 68

Red Army 290, 355, 617, 721, 752, 783, 812

Reformation 39, 6667, 101, 203, 269270, 365, 371, 395398, 403, 464, 466, 470, 499, 502, 601602, 695, 697, 701702, 728, 794795, 797798, 821822, 825, 858, 923, 926, 945

regime change 76, 323, 654, 945

regionalism 49, 58, 245, 277, 293, 786, 937

Rembrandt 632

Renaissance 911, 267, 628, 728, 821822, 835, 858, 931

republicanism 16, 77, 265, 291, 330, 333, 336, 341, 345346, 355, 377, 399, 406, 417, 477, 676, 716, 719, 723, 728, 734, 763, 933934

Respublica Christiana 89, 12

Reuter, Julius 870

Revolutionary Wars 47

Revolutions of 1848 1819, 21, 50, 76, 7879, 83, 181182, 241, 252, 261, 275, 340, 342346, 348, 375376, 378, 406407, 409410, 510, 541, 575, 618, 675, 741, 831, 833, 901

Rhine 38, 40, 42, 48, 59, 336, 402, 543, 663, 771772

Ribadeneyra, Pedro de 729

Ricardo, David 574

Riou, Gaston 27

Ripa, Cesare 11, 792

Risorgimento 345, 708

Rivera, Miguel Primo de 417

Rodrigues, Olinde 831

Roman Empire 8, 11, 16, 38, 46, 66, 99, 170, 204, 297298, 300, 364, 367369, 396, 437438, 499, 569, 696, 858, 889890, 920, 925926

Romania 28, 55, 59, 6970, 77, 155, 159, 184, 190, 192, 195, 253, 277, 279, 288289, 291, 400, 417, 423, 579, 682, 688, 702, 709, 715, 718, 721722

Romani people 72, 167170, 172174, 190191, 194197, 245, 249, 257, 287289, 452, 751

Rome 9, 11, 16, 31, 136, 271, 300, 345346, 497, 556, 588, 687, 695, 699, 701, 716, 849, 923, 936

Roosevelt, Franklin D. 87

Rote Armee Fraktion 356357

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 377, 733734, 738, 795

Royal Geographical Society 311

Royal Society 575

Ruhr area 534, 543, 575

Ruiz de Moros, Pedro 502503

Ruskin, John 936937

Russia xvi, 6, 9, 13, 15, 1719, 22, 25, 2728, 32, 39, 43, 47, 68, 70, 7680, 83, 8586, 8889, 103, 112114, 116, 124126, 128, 140, 169, 173174, 180181, 184185, 191194, 224, 245, 252, 255256, 265268, 271, 277279, 281, 286287, 297298, 300305, 313, 318319, 332, 335, 340341, 344348, 351352, 354355, 357358, 365, 369370, 374375, 377, 385386, 400, 405, 408409, 416417, 423, 446, 479, 518520, 541, 552553, 569570, 575, 578579, 585, 619, 650, 664665, 671, 677, 680, 707, 715717, 723, 732, 751, 759760, 764768, 770, 772775, 781, 784, 794, 796798, 824, 837, 842, 844, 846, 868, 892

Russian Civil War 124, 585, 619, 775

Russian Revolution 8586, 124, 287, 348, 351352, 423, 519, 619, 715. See also October Revolution; See also February Revolution

Russo-Japanese War 114, 774

Saavedra Fajardo, Diego de 597

Sacred Union 416

Sade, Marquis de 827828

Saint-Simon, Henri de 2021, 377, 477, 610, 741, 831833

Salazar, António de Oliveira 120, 387, 418, 879

Salonica 54. See also Thessaloniki

Sámi people 167, 169, 173174, 190

Scaliger, Joseph Justus 9, 498

Scandinavia xviii, 38, 81, 167, 169, 173, 180, 190, 475, 518, 630, 695, 781, 892

Schengen Agreement 5456, 58, 93

Schiller, Friedrich 113, 280

Schuman, Robert 60

Schumpeter, Joseph 445, 595

Schurman, Anna Maria van 498499, 827

scientific revolution 453454, 500, 504, 529, 533, 535, 858

Scramble for Africa 115

Second International 347, 411

Second Vatican Council 718720, 723

Second World War 2930, 5354, 59, 8790, 92, 116, 122, 124, 127128, 155, 157159, 189, 191193, 195196, 222, 224, 251253, 255, 257258, 285, 288290, 292, 318, 321, 353, 355, 357359, 367, 383384, 386387, 389, 415, 420, 422, 424, 451452, 455456, 483484, 489490, 517, 519520, 523524, 549550, 554555, 583, 585586, 588, 590, 616617, 622, 627, 648652, 654655, 680681, 683684, 686, 715, 717719, 721723, 752, 755, 781, 784, 808, 810, 841, 849, 882, 910, 940, 943, 945, 948949

secularisation 138, 141, 159, 224, 442, 466, 701, 703, 706, 710, 715716, 718, 720, 723

Senefelder, Alois 867

Sepúlveda, Juan Ginés de 105

serfdom 7980, 114, 241242, 267, 303, 344, 399400, 402, 408409, 541, 569, 573574, 602, 659, 663665, 667, 669, 671, 767

Sessé, Joseph de 12

Seven Years’ War 369371, 373

Shoah 353, 389, 718. See also Holocaust

Sicilian Vespers 330

Siemens 580581

Sieyès, Emmanuel Joseph 233, 734

Sigismund, John 701

Silent Generation 808

Silesia 53, 167, 203, 289, 369, 500, 575, 920

Siñeriz, Juan Francisco 22

Sinti people 191, 197, 245, 249, 257, 287289

Sister Republics 336

Sitte, Camillo 936937

Situationists 849

Sklodowska Curie, Marie 452

Sládek, Josef Václav 111

slavery 68, 7174, 83, 104106, 145, 169, 172, 237238, 244, 267, 297, 303, 308309, 311, 314, 336, 379, 405, 409410, 413, 439, 466, 546, 564, 567, 569, 629, 633, 659, 665667, 669, 676, 739, 823824, 826, 876

Slavery Abolition Act 410

Slovakia 5455, 191, 194195, 289, 499

Slovenia 55, 88, 161, 195, 287, 621, 685

smallpox 104105, 140, 148, 533

Smith, Adam 574, 610, 638, 731732, 738

Smith, Robert Angus 545

Social Darwinism 477, 743744

social democracy 258, 346347, 378, 483, 491492, 609, 616, 618, 743, 753, 879

Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 28, 378, 620, 743

socialism 15, 2022, 27, 29, 5658, 7677, 124, 127, 158159, 189, 193196, 223224, 243, 248, 252253, 290291, 318, 325, 339, 346348, 352353, 355357, 377378, 384, 386387, 406407, 411, 413, 416417, 422424, 452, 477, 483, 488, 491492, 519522, 524, 550, 574, 587, 589590, 609611, 617623, 648, 651654, 675677, 681682, 715, 721722, 737738, 741743, 747748, 750753, 809, 811, 828, 833, 845, 849, 909, 941, 945947

Socialist Realism 845

social security 290, 384, 488, 490, 492, 688

Sokol movement 901

Solidarność 423, 686, 721

Solzhenitsyn, Alexander 680

South America 299300, 302303, 313, 356, 666

Soviet Union 26, 3031, 54, 88, 90, 123125, 158, 160, 193194, 196, 222224, 253, 290, 318319, 325326, 386387, 422, 424, 452453, 491492, 550, 553, 555, 585, 589, 619620, 651, 680, 716717, 721722, 750753, 755, 783784, 809, 843, 845, 941, 944. See also USSR

Spain xvii, 8, 1112, 22, 39, 4748, 55, 59, 66, 6869, 7172, 7678, 80, 88, 90, 100101, 104106, 120, 127128, 138, 156, 168, 171172, 178179, 190191, 195, 206, 211, 214, 237, 245, 253, 255, 257, 266, 268269, 271, 275, 277, 282, 286, 289, 291, 298300, 302304, 308, 323, 330331, 340341, 347, 351, 354356, 358, 364369, 371, 374, 376, 385, 387, 396397, 400, 417419, 438, 443, 469, 502503, 508, 518, 530, 563, 565566, 568, 597, 607, 616, 633, 639, 660, 666, 698699, 715, 719720, 723, 729, 739, 772, 776, 781, 792, 804, 824, 836, 856, 861, 879, 888, 893, 903, 905, 913914, 924925, 932

Spanish Civil War 351, 354355, 358, 719

Spanish Empire 502, 563

Spanish flu 156

Spanish War of Succession 8. See also War of the Spanish Succession

spatialisation 872, 909

Spencer, Herbert 744

Spinelli, Altiero 31

Springtime of Nations 18, 348. See also Revolutions of 1848

Sputnik 453, 523

Staël, Germaine de 739

Stalinism 290, 422, 485, 617, 619620, 751753, 946

Stalin, Joseph 224, 253, 387, 453, 455, 552553, 587, 619, 652653, 680, 717, 721, 723, 751, 845

standardisation 16, 43, 144, 146, 266, 268, 280, 435, 443, 445446, 455456, 513, 524, 575, 588, 699, 775, 858, 880, 890, 936, 943944

St Bartholomew’s Day massacres 728729

steam engine 432, 434435, 438, 447, 534, 574, 640, 672, 769, 772, 776

steamship 151, 446, 448449, 518, 579, 769771, 776

Stephenson, George 447

St Malo 41

Stockholm 555, 648, 931

Stockholm School 648

Štolba, Josef 111

Stoppani, Antonio 545

St Petersburg 205, 271, 475, 570, 766767, 773

Strasbourg 5859

Stresemann, Gustav 27

Suarez, Francisco 729

subculture 193, 256, 791, 796, 811, 814815

Sudetenland 56, 87

Suez Crisis 122, 387

Suprematism 841843, 846

Surrealism 844, 846847, 849

Sweden 67, 55, 136, 148, 158160, 170, 173174, 180, 190, 210, 214, 223224, 226, 258, 277, 289, 292, 300, 368, 371, 478, 500, 507, 540, 545, 554555, 569, 586, 616, 749, 803, 902

Switzerland 1617, 41, 47, 55, 66, 148, 167, 195, 223, 226, 255, 289, 311, 336, 368, 386, 402, 406, 411, 448, 475, 478, 511, 518, 520, 543, 556, 630, 770, 772

Tansley, Arthur 553

Tardieu, André 29

Targowica Confederation 332

Tatishchev, Vasily 767

Tatlin, Vladimir 842843

tea 574, 578579, 628629, 633, 642, 662

technology 20, 65, 103, 109, 114, 201, 225, 258, 293, 304, 312314, 364, 367, 374375, 429, 431, 433436, 438449, 451452, 454459, 485, 511, 522523, 529, 532534, 536, 539541, 543, 546, 549552, 555557, 574, 580, 590, 611, 615, 623, 632, 638640, 648, 650, 661, 670672, 680, 683, 718, 751, 776, 786, 831, 837, 839, 846, 865867, 870, 872873, 880, 904, 907908

telegraph 65, 75, 374, 443445, 449, 518, 575, 577, 580581, 673, 769, 831, 866, 870, 872873

terrorism 55, 347, 353358, 411413, 812, 946

terror rojo 355

Tesla, Nikola 447

Thatcher, Margaret 256, 491, 621, 754

The Hague 376, 911, 925

Thessaloniki 54, 66, 708, 775

Thiers, Adolphe 351

Third Reich 29, 193, 879. See also Nazi Germany

Third Rome 271, 300

Third Way 492, 648, 752

Third World 292, 319, 325, 387, 457, 555556, 784

Thirty Years’ War 16, 41, 66, 140, 331, 367368, 371, 499500, 504, 661

Tiananmen Square Massacre 125

Tintin 121

Tocqueville, Alexis de 740

totalitarianism 123, 185, 485, 517, 519, 652, 749750, 752, 810, 879, 947948

Toynbee, Arnold 611

Tracy, Antoine Destutt de 737738, 747

Trans-Siberian Railway 774

Treaty of Lausanne 718

Treaty of Paris 370, 588

Treaty of Rijswijk 369

Treaty of Rome 31, 588

Treaty of Versailles 26

Treaty of Westphalia 16

Treaty of Zaragoza 299

Trente Glorieuses 488, 588

Trieste 53, 58, 77, 81, 205, 575, 586

Trotsky, Leon 27, 619, 621

Turgot, Anne Robert Jacques 731

Twelve Points 344

Twelve Years’ Truce 700

Ukraine xvi, 54, 88, 125, 169, 182, 184, 192193, 287, 289, 319, 355, 357, 585, 765, 946

Ultramontanism 707

Umberto I 347

unemployment 92, 480, 487488, 608, 617, 621622, 650, 673674, 676, 679680, 682685, 687688

Union Européenne des Fédéralistes (UEF) 31

United Kingdom xvii, 5456, 79, 87, 93, 159, 179, 180, 244, 265, 272, 277, 286, 292, 321, 341, 347, 385, 387, 405406, 453, 475, 489, 491, 544, 554, 586, 591, 622, 650, 667, 684685, 711, 754, 781782, 803, 812, 814, 880. See also Great Britain

United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (CEPAL) 780

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 453, 940941, 943944, 948949

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) 89

United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) 89

United Nations (UN) 31, 89, 162, 255, 384, 554555, 780, 913, 940

United States of America 1822, 2628, 30, 33, 54, 79, 8083, 86, 89, 92, 109112, 116, 119, 123124, 126–128, 149, 156, 158159, 225, 238, 252, 256, 289291, 307309, 317, 325, 333334, 347, 354, 356358, 375, 378379, 384388, 402, 419, 439, 446, 455, 458, 491, 518, 523, 579, 581, 583587, 590, 608, 620, 648650, 680, 684, 740, 754, 773, 782784, 811812, 814, 849, 865, 872, 880881, 901, 911. See also America

United States of Europe 1822, 2728, 378

Universal Declaration of Human Rights 288, 897, 913

universal monarchy 8, 16, 377

universities xvxvii, 9, 50, 79, 110, 203, 268, 276, 292, 320, 407, 419, 433, 436, 444, 465, 485, 497504, 507515, 517525, 532, 575, 687, 698, 721, 780, 796, 805, 811812, 827, 844845, 855, 877, 879880, 922, 935

Upper Lusatia 925926

urbanisation 75, 80, 150, 232, 246, 251, 398, 437, 443, 452, 473475, 478479, 481, 484, 529, 534, 543, 545, 547, 550, 569, 608, 630, 632633, 642, 660, 662, 673674, 705, 709, 712, 772773, 784785, 799, 801803, 861, 908, 911, 913, 935, 937

USSR 54, 193194, 225, 252, 288, 292, 319, 387, 458, 518, 524, 553, 648, 753, 783, 810811. See also Soviet Union

utopianism 2122, 375, 377, 470, 473, 476477, 481, 602, 741742, 821826, 828829, 832833, 841, 849

Utrecht xix, 369, 498, 797, 827

Vargas, Getúlio 128

Velvet Revolution 423

Venice 9, 99, 171, 435436, 531, 536, 569, 631, 698, 700, 824, 936, 944

Verdi, Giuseppe 838

Vernadsky, Vladimir 553

Verne, Jules 769, 872

Verona, Guarino da 498

Vichy regime 389, 519, 945

Vienna 10, 17, 1920, 46, 50, 70, 103, 113, 115, 277278, 340, 343345, 375, 377, 448, 475, 484, 543, 581, 702, 776, 783, 786, 936, 944

Vienna Treaty 18

Vietnam 90, 127, 159, 325, 356, 420, 458

Vietnam War 127, 420

Viollet-le-Duc, Eugène 936

Virchow, Rudolf 544

Vitoria, Balthasar de 12

Vitoria, Francisco de 104

Vittorio Emanuele II 279, 345

Vives, Juan Luis 469, 502

VKHUTEMAS (Vysshiye Khudozhestvenno-Tekhnicheskiye Masterskiye) 844845

Voimaliitto resistance movement 902

Voltaire 9, 732733, 737, 933

Wagner, Richard 838839

Wallachia 172, 664, 775

Warhol, Andy 848

War of Devolution 368

War of Granada 365

War of Restoration 565

War of the Austrian Succession 8, 369

War of the League of Augsburg 368369

War of the Polish Succession 8

War of the Spanish Succession 369

Warsaw Pact 291, 424, 721, 783

Wars of Religion 41, 140, 329, 331, 698699, 729

Watt, James 438, 447

Weather Underground 356

Weber, Max 68, 124, 443

Weimar Republic 87, 255, 487

Weisse, Christian Felix 795

welfare state 155, 161, 254, 285, 292293, 420, 483, 488, 490493, 609, 616618, 620622, 652, 683, 685686, 688, 753, 755, 799, 804, 908

Westernisation 114, 124125, 314

Western Rebellion 601

West Germany 54, 56, 90, 124125, 155, 158, 223, 225, 356, 419421, 424, 490, 554, 586589, 810811. See also Federal Republic of Germany

White, Gilbert 540, 546

Wilhelm I 279, 345

Wilhelm II 77, 114, 334

Wilhelm V 334

William of Orange 365366

Wilson, Woodrow 20, 26, 286, 288, 321, 384

Wolff, Bernard 26, 37, 500, 870

Wollstonecraft, Mary 407

Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom 384

working class 150, 243244, 252253, 342, 347, 398, 406407, 410, 447, 476477, 480, 611, 615, 617618, 621, 627, 673674, 676677, 686687, 705, 712, 742743, 748, 751, 802803, 811, 814, 831, 839, 861, 871, 880, 898, 904, 907, 945

World Bank 324

World Health Organization (WHO) 225, 453

Year of Africa 322

Yellow Peril 114, 116, 123

Yom Kippur War 649

Young Europe 18, 78

Young Ireland 344

youth culture 795796, 798, 809812, 815

Yugoslavia 28, 54, 90, 158, 161, 190, 194195, 253, 257, 278, 286290, 351, 355, 357, 385, 421, 620, 687, 717718, 721, 752, 784785, 944

Yugoslav Wars 351, 357

Zebrzydowski uprising 332

Zedong, Mao 325, 419

Zionism 197, 748

Zola, Émile 246, 643, 833, 837

Zollverein 575. See also German Customs Union

Zweig, Stefan 51

Zygmunt III Wasa 332

Zygmunt I Stary 332

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